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Track Plenary Speakers

William Parnell

Track 1: Acoustics, Vibration, and Phononics

Name: William Parnell, University of Manchester (UK)

Presentation Title: Hyperelastic Metamaterials and Phononic Media – Stretching the Truth?

Abstract: Transformation theory is an established mechanism for the design of metamaterials. It gives rise to the required material properties of the medium in order to direct waves in the manner desired. This talk will focus on the mathematical theory underpinning the design of both acoustic and elastodynamic metamaterials and phononic media, based on transformation theory, and some aspects of the experimental confirmation of these designs. In the acoustics context it is well known that the governing equations are transform invariant and therefore a whole range of microstructural options are available for material design, although in reality, fabricating materials that can harness incoming acoustic energy in air is difficult due to the usual sharp impedance contrast between air and the metamaterial in question. In the elastodynamic context the situation is even worse, because the governing equations are not even transform invariant and therefore a new class of materials are required. In the acoustics context we will describe a new microstructure consisting of an array of rigid rods that is closely impedance matched to air and slows down sound in air. This is shown to be useful in a number of configurations and in particular it can be employed to half the resonant frequency of the standard quarter-wavelength resonator. Alternatively it can half the size of the resonator for a specified resonant frequency. Extensions to three-dimensional configurations will also be discussed. In the elastodynamics context we will show that although the equations are not transformation invariant, one can employ the theory of waves in pre-stressed, hyperelastic materials in order to create natural elastodynamic metamaterials whose inhomogeneous anisotropic material properties are generated naturally by an appropriate pre-stress. In particular it is shown that a certain class of hyperelastic materials exhibit this so-called “invariance property” permitting the creation of e.g. hyperelastic cloaks and invariant metamaterials. This has significant consequences for the design of e.g. phononic media: it is a well-known and frequently exploited fact that pre-stress and large deformation of hyperelastic materials modifies the linear elastic wave speed in the deformed medium. In the context of periodic materials this renders materials whose dynamic properties are “tunable” under pre-stress and in particular this permits tunable band gaps in periodic media. However the invariant hyperelastic materials described above can be employed in order to design a class of phononic media whose band-gaps are invariant to deformation. Finally we describe the accommodation of viscoelasticity in the theory of hyperelastic metamaterials. Incorporating this effect into models is crucial given that soft materials, capable of large deformation, are inherently lossy.

Bio: William Parnell is a Professor of Applied Mathematics in the School of Mathematics at the University of Manchester (UK) and holds an EPSRC Research Fellowship. He received a First Class degree in Applied Mathematics from the University of Bristol (UK) in 1999, before moving to the University of Oxford (UK) to study for a Masters in Mathematical Modelling and Scientific Computing, graduating with distinction in 2000. After a year travelling he began a PhD in 2001 at the University of Manchester under the supervision of I. David Abrahams (now Director of the Isaac Newton Institute at the University of Cambridge), completing this in 2004. Parnell’s research interests reside principally in the development of new mathematical techniques to understand the mechanical properties of inhomogeneous materials and the dynamic behaviour of particulate media. More recently his work has involved linking theory with experiments in order to develop new composites and metamaterials. He has a particular interest in understanding the constitutive behaviour of complex soft solids and tuning this via novel fillers. He leads the Mathematics of Waves and Materials (MWM) research group at Manchester, which consists of a thriving group of Postdocs, PhD students and Masters students. Parnell has held visiting positions at Universite Paris 6 and 12 (France), University of Trento (Italy), University of Oxford (UK) and Colorado School of Mines and Rutgers (USA). He has published more than 60 research papers and 2 book chapters. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications (UK), is the founding director of the Manchester Materials Modelling Centre and became Editor in Chief of the journal Wave Motion in 2017.

Kai-Goebel

Track 1: Acoustics, Vibration, and Phononics

Name: Kai Goebel, System Sciences Lab at Palo Alto Research Center (PARC)

Presentation Title: Failure is not an Option: Avoiding operational disruptions with mechanistic and data-driven damage prognostics

Abstract: We are in an age where pervasive sensing, high communication bandwidth, and advances in AI have arrived at industrial equipment. The question is how one can leverage these advances for operational gain. To uphold operational functionality, these techniques flow into a Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM) strategy where maintenance is only performed on evidence of need identified through direct or indirect monitoring. Knowledge of an asset’s condition and how it will evolve is required such that the remedial action can be prescribed with sufficient lead time to minimize the cost and operational impact of the occurrence of a potential disruption. This strategy differs from “on-condition” maintenance in that an understanding of how much time is available before the asset loses functionality can be leveraged. The basic concept entails collecting and assessing data from NDE inspections and in-situ sensors to estimate remaining life of the system in question. This is done using either mechanistic, physics-based models or, as suitable, data-driven AI techniques. This talk lays out a roadmap of the tools and methods that are to be used to realize the promise of making failure not an option.

Bio: Dr. Kai Goebel is a Principal Scientist in the System Sciences Lab at Palo Alto Research Center (PARC). His interest is broadly in condition-based maintenance and systems health management for a broad spectrum of cyber-physical systems in the transportation, energy, aerospace, defense, and manufacturing sectors. Prior to joining PARC, Dr. Goebel worked at NASA Ames Research Center and General Electric Corporate Research & Development center. At NASA, he was a branch chief leading the Discovery and Systems Health tech area which included groups for machine learning, quantum computing, physics modeling, and diagnostics & prognostics. He founded and directed the Prognostics Center of Excellence which advanced our understanding of the fundamental aspects of prognostics. He holds 18 patents and has published more than 350 papers, including a book on Prognostics. Dr. Goebel was an adjunct professor at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and is now adjunct professor at Lulea Technical University. He is a member of ASME, co-founder of the Prognostics and Health Management Society, and associate editor of the International Journal of PHM.

 

Lyle E. Levine

Track 2: Advanced Manufacturing

Name: Lyle E. Levine, National Institute of Standards and Technology Presentation

Presentation Title: Building Parts by Welding Millions of Little Bits of Metals Together: What can go wrong and how do we fix it?

Abstract: Additive manufacturing (AM) of metal components is a rapidly growing advanced manufacturing paradigm that promises unparalleled flexibility in the production of parts with complex geometries. However, the extreme processing conditions create position-dependent microstructures, residual stresses, and properties that complicate component and process design and certification. Quantitative modeling of these characteristics is critical, but model validation requires rigorous benchmark measurements including comprehensive characterization of the feedstock materials, close in situ monitoring of the melt pool behavior, and extensive microstructure, residual stress, and property characterizations. To be useful, such benchmark measurements must be accepted broadly by the international AM community so that meaningful comparisons can be made between different modeling codes and approaches. Here, the underlying challenges we face in expanding metals AM beyond a niche market will be discussed along with the critical role played by computer simulation. Next, I will discuss the rationale behind the need for rigorous, broad-based measurements and standards. Finally, I will describe the NIST-founded Additive Manufacturing Benchmark Test Series (AM-Bench), a continuing series of highly controlled benchmark tests for additive manufacturing that modelers around the world are now using to test and validate their AM simulations.

Bio: Dr. Lyle Levine is a physicist in the Materials Measurement Laboratory of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the USA, where he leads most of NIST’s materials research in additive manufacturing (AM) of metals. With a dual emphasis on world-leading, quantitative measurements and microstructure evolution modeling, this Additive Manufacturing of Metals Project provides experimental input and validation testing for both high-fidelity AM models and reduced order models for AM engineering design. Dr. Levine also founded and leads AM-Bench, an international organization that provides AM benchmark measurements for the AM community. With active participation from more than 80 organizations around the world AM-Bench is the world’s leading provider for AM benchmark data. Dr. Levine also leads the experimental validation effort for the AM application, ExaAM, for the Exascale Computing Project. ExaAM is a collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and NIST. In addition to his work on additive manufacturing, Dr. Levine founded the continuing Dislocations Conference Series and is highly active in synchrotron X-ray science, where he co-develops and uses world-leading microbeam diffraction and small-angle scattering methods for studying material microstructures. Dr. Levine received his B.S. in physics from Caltech and his Ph.D. in physics from Washington University in St. Louis. He is an adjunct professor of Mechanical Engineering at both Northwestern University and the University of Southern California, where he advises graduate students. Dr. Levine is a recipient of NIST’s highest honor for innovations in measurement science, the Allen V. Astin Measurement Science Award; the U.S. Department of Commerce Silver Medal, the department’s second highest honor; and the ASM 2018 Henry Marion Howe Medal for his work on AM heat treatments.

Brigid Mullany

Track 2: Advanced Manufacturing

Name: Brigid Mullany, National Science Foundation

Presentation Title: Finishing freeform surfaces, a new surface characterization approach, and future trends in manufacturing.

Abstract: Dr. Brigid Mullany will provide insights on the challenges of fabricating and finishing freeform surfaces. Specifics will focus on a novel fiber-based tool capable of eliminating tool path marks from earlier process steps in the fabrication of optical quality components. She will also provide insights on how common statistical metrics can be used to provide spatial information regarding surface texture, and defect detection. Based on her time as a program director in the Advanced Manufacturing Program at the National Science Foundation, she will also provide her perspectives on future trends in Manufacturing.

Bio: Brigid Mullany received her Bachelor of Engineering Degree and Doctorate in Mechanical Engineering from University College Dublin in Ireland. Upon graduation she received a two-year EU Marie Curie postdoctoral research position at Carl Zeiss in Germany. In 2004 she joined the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Science at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte where she is a Professor working in the area of surface finishing and advanced manufacturing. Currently she is a Program Director in the Advanced Manufacturing program at the National Science Foundation. She is active in CIRP, where she is the Vice Chair of the Scientific Technical Committee on Surfaces (STC-S), and she is on the NAMRI board of directors.

Carlos E. S. Cesnik

Track 3: Advances in Aerospace Technology

Name: Carlos E. S. Cesnik, University of Michigan

Presentation Title: Very Flexible Aircraft: Performance Promises And Aeroelastic Challenges

Abstract: Large-span aircraft configurations become dominant when designing for high fuel efficiency and/or high endurance flights due to the induced drag minimization. The combination of high aerodynamic efficiency and low structural weight fraction leads to inherently very flexible wings. These vehicles may then present large wing deformations at relatively low frequencies, which results in a direct impact into their flight dynamic characteristics. Such conditions can have a significant effect on high-altitude long-endurance (HALE) aircraft and future highly-efficient commercial transport aircraft.

This lecture will highlight the computational and experimental efforts at the University of Michigan to better understand the impact of large deformations on the aeroelastic characteristics of these flexible vehicles. In particular, an experimental program to evaluate in flight some of the unusual aircraft behaviors that can be predicted by our codes. The unmanned aerial vehicle, known as X-HALE, has been designed and built to be aeroelastically representative of (HALE) very flexible aircraft. The objective of this testbed is to fundamentally understand the physics involved in the presence of geometric nonlinearities, collect unique data of the geometrically nonlinear aeroelastic response coupled with the flight dynamics in support to code validation, and as an inexpensive platform for nonlinear control exploration.An outlook on the remaining challenges and future activities will conclude the lecture.

Bio: Carlos E. S. Cesnik is the Clarence L. “Kelly” Johnson Collegiate Professor of Aerospace Engineering and the founding Director of the Active Aeroelasticity and Structures Research Laboratory. He also directs the Airbus-Michigan Center for Aero-Servo-Elasticity of Very Flexible Aircraft (CASE-VFA). His research interests have focused on computational and experimental aeroelasticity of very flexible aircraft; coupled nonlinear aeroelasticity and flight dynamic response in high-altitude long-endurance (HALE) aircraft and advanced jet transport aircraft; aerothermoelastic modeling, analysis and simulation of hypersonic vehicles; and active vibration and noise reductions in helicopters.

Professor Cesnik is a Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and a Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society. He serves as AIAA’s Director for the Aerospace Design and Structures Group and is an elected member of AIAA’s Council of Directors. He has over 300 publications as archival journal and conference papers, and several invited lectures in the areas of aeroelasticity, smart structures, structural mechanics, and structural health monitoring.

Fu Kuo Chang

Track 3: Advances in Aerospace Technology

Name: Fu-Kuo Chang

Presentation Title: Design of Advanced Multifunctional Composites for Fly-by-Feel Autonomous Electric Vehicles

Abstract: It is envisioned that the next generation aerospace vehicles will be eco-friendly and designed towards being fully autonomous and highly intelligent to achieve optimal performance with highest safety assurance for all operational conditions. The vehicles will be equipped with high-resolution state-sensing and self-awareness capabilities to diagnose their health and operating states on a real-time basis, mimicking the sensory skins of biological systems and enabling “fly-by-feel” capabilities. In addition, the vehicles will be powered by hybrid or electric propulsion systems using energy provided by advanced high-energy batteries.

In this presentation, a robust and cost-effective manufacturing technique is proposed to create a new class of Multifunctional Energy Storage Composites (MESC) that can be used to design specifically for the next generation autonomous electric vehicles. The MES Composites will be built with distributed stretchable sensors/electronics networks and embedded lithium-ion batteries to form a completely integrated intelligent material system. Utilizing novel microfabrication methods, the sensor networks can be fabricated in nano/micro scales and then be stretched in several orders of magnitude to be embeddable into composite structures. A novel interlocking fabrication technique is developed to seamlessly integrate lithium-ion batteries into composites without sacrificing the structural integrity of the host while maintaining the energy capacity and electrical performance of the original battery materials. The fly-by-feel technology concept was successfully demonstrated in real-time in a wind tunnel experiment on a composite wing with integrated sensor networks. At the same time, the health of the integrated batteries could be monitored simultaneously using the built-in sensor networks. Prototypes of the multifunctional energy-storage composites were fabricated and demonstrated the feasibility of providing up to 40% weight savings on the combined battery and structural weight of existing commercial electric vehicles.

Bio: Dr. Fu-Kuo Chang is a Professor in the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at Stanford University. His primary research interest is in the areas of multi-functional materials and intelligent structures with particular emphases on structural health monitoring, self-sensing diagnostics, intelligent sensor networks, and multifunctional energy storage composites for transportation vehicles as well safety-critical assets. He is a recipient of the SHM Lifetime Achievement Award (2004), SPIE NDE Lifetime Achievement Award (2010), and the PHM lifetime Achievement Award (2018). He is the Editor-in-Chief of Int. J. of Structural Health Monitoring. He is also a Fellow of AIAA and ASME.

David Kaczka

Track 4: Biomedical and Biotechnology Engineering

Name: David Kaczka, University of Iowa Presentation

Presentation Title: Multi-Frequency Oscillation and Lung Protective Ventilation

Abstract: Lung protective mechanical ventilation provides life-sustaining gas exchange of the failing respiratory system, while simultaneously minimizing the risk of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). The parameters most often adjusted on a ventilator include the amount of gas delivered with each breath (the tidal volume) and the rate at which this gas is cyclically applied (the frequency). We have recently demonstrated that oscillation of a heterogeneously lung with multiple simultaneous frequencies improves gas exchange and maintains lung recruitment at lower distending pressures compared to traditional ‘single-frequency’ ventilation. We termed this novel ventilatory modality ‘multi-frequency oscillatory ventilation’ (MFOV), and hypothesized that such short-term physiological improvements are due to a more even distribution of ventilation to different lung regions, in accordance with local mechanical properties. Since specific lung regions may be characterized by different ‘preferred’ frequencies for oscillatory flow, MFOV is uniquely capable of enhancing gas exchange in the mechanically heterogeneous lung. As a result, MFOV produces more efficient oxygenation and CO2 elimination. In comparison to conventional mechanical ventilation, MFOV may be a more efficacious approach to minimizing VILI in the heterogeneously injured lung, by reducing parenchymal strain heterogeneity. In this presentation, we will discuss the theoretical rationale for the use of MFOV in structurally heterogeneous pathologies such as the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Using dynamic xenon-enhanced computed tomography and 4-dimensional image registration, we will elucidate the mechanisms by which MFOV improves regional ventilation distribution, aeration, and parenchymal strain in a porcine model of ARDS. We will then demonstrate how the spectral content of MFOV waveforms may be algorithmically designed using anatomically explicit computational models of the mammalian respiratory system. We expect that these pre-clinical studies of MFOV will be ultimately translatable and testable in eventual human clinical trials, with potential to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with ARDS and other heterogeneous lung diseases.

Bio: David W. Kaczka received the B.S. (summa cum laude), M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in biomedical engineering from Boston University College of Engineering in 1990, 1993, and 2000, respectively, and the M.D. degree from the Boston University School of Medicine in 2000. He completed his residency in anesthesiology at Johns Hopkins University in 2004. He has held previous faculty appointments with Johns Hopkins University and Harvard Medical School. In 2014 he became a Lunsford Fellow in Critical Care Medicine at the University of Iowa, where he is currently an Associate Professor of Anesthesia, Biomedical Engineering, and Radiology. He has also served as a Lieutenant Colonel in the Medical Corps of the United States Air Force Reserve. His current research interests include computational modeling of respiratory mechanics and gas exchange, design and function of mechanical ventilators, patient monitoring, and image processing. Dr. Kaczka is a member of the American Thoracic Society, the Biomedical Engineering Society, the American Society of Anesthesiologists, the Society of Critical Care Medicine, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Tau Beta Pi, and Alpha Eta Mu Beta.

Wei Luo

Track 4: Biomedical and Biotechnology Engineering

Name: Wei Luo, Siemens Healthineers

Presentation Title: An overview of Intracardiac Echocardiography Technology with its application and advancement in Interventional Cardiology

Abstract: Intracardiac Echocardiography (ICE) is an ultrasound imaging technology used specially in catheter-based electrophysiological and structural procedures. It provides a visualization of heart anatomies and structures, a guiding capability of procedural catheter deployment, and an early identification of complications. Comparing to other typical imaging modalities such as transesophageal echocardiography and fluoroscopy, ICE provides significant benefits such as simplifying clinical work flow by eliminating the use of general anesthesia and reducing the exposure to radiation. In electrophysiology space, 2D/3D ICE has been used widely in EP labs for typical catheter ablation procedures related to electrophysiology arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillations, atrial flutter, and ventricular tachycardia. In the last decade, with the effort of industrial pioneers advancing in ICE catheter and electroanatomic mapping system, ICE has become a standard imaging method used in catheter ablation procedures of electrophysiological arrhythmias primarily in the US, with other regions like Japan growing tremendously lately. Comparing to the established EP market, structural heart is an emerging and exciting space with very large investment and rapid growth in multiple cardiac clinical applications such as Left Atrial Appendage closure (LAAc), Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair(TMVR), and Transcatheter Tricuspid Valve Repair (TTVR), etc. ICE is an invaluable tool in this domain providing tremendous potential in terms of not only work flow simplification and the associated cost reduction but also a unique imaging guidance enabling the success of certain procedures. In this overview we will discuss the application and the latest advancement of ICE technology, as well as the challenges and opportunities in both electrophysiology and structural heart clinical applications.

Bio: Dr. Wei Luo received his Ph.D. degree in Engineering Science and Mechanics, and M.S. degree in Electrical Engineering, from Penn State University, State College, PA, in 2004 and 2005. He also holds a B.S. degree in Mechanical Engineering from Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, in 1998. He has been working in the field of ultrasound for more than 20 years, with his recent focus in the last decade on medical transducer and ICE catheter technology, and his early career in guided wave technology and industrial transducer development.

He is currently the Sr. Director of Catheter Engineering, Ultrasound BU at Siemens Healthineers, leading a R&D team to develop cutting edge ICE catheter technology and related Class III medical devices for treating electrophysiology arrythmias and structural heart diseases. Prior to that, he worked at GE Healthcare as a R&D leader developing e4D ultrasound imaging technology for early fetal heart disease diagnosis. He also worked in GE Industrial divisions for developing solutions of structural health monitoring. His most recent achievements are highlighted by the commercial launch of multiple innovative and breakthrough medical devices, including ACUSON Volume ICE catheter (2018) - the first-in-world and only real time Volume ICE in the market, the innovative Deep Abdominal Transducer (DAX) for ACUSON Sequoia (2018) to obesity patient diagnosis, the first-in-world 3D TEE (Z6Ms) with real time volume and color Doppler imaging (2015), and the first-in-world e4D curved matrix array (eM6C) for VOLUSON E10 (2014). He is also the author of multiple patents as well as numerous journal and conference publications.

Charbel Farhat

Track 5: Dynamics, Vibration, and Control

Name: Charbel Farhat, Institute for Computational and Mathematical Engineering Stanford University

Presentation Title: Data-Driven Model Reduction and Probabilistic Learning for Digital Twins

Abstract: A digital twin refers to a digital replica of a physical asset – whether a platform or a process – that can be used, for example, to control in real-time the operation of this asset, or optimize in near real-time its maintenance. For some, a digital twin “integrates artificial intelligence, machine learning and software analytics with data to create living digital simulation models that update and change as their physical counterparts change”[1]. This lecture however will assert that in the context of computational mechanics, a more rigorous realization of a digital twin can be grounded in recent advances in the data-driven reduction of the dimensionality of high-fidelity models, and the data-driven probabilistic modeling and quantification of the model-form uncertainties associated with the resulting reduced-order models. The lecture will also illustrate the aforementioned assertions with two sample digital twins constructed for this purpose — one for a UAV in order to control is automatic landing on a carrier using a real-time model predictive control (MPC) algorithm, and one for a small-scale replica of an X-56 type aircraft in order to optimize in near real-time its maintenance – and will highlight their performance.

Bio: Charbel Farhat is the Vivian Church Hoff Professor of Aircraft Structures, Chairman of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Director of the Army High Performance Computing Research Center, and Director of the of the King Abdullah City of Science and Technology Center of Excellence for Aeronautics and Astronautics at Stanford University. His research interests focus on the development of mathematical models, advanced computational algorithms, and high-performance software for the design and analysis of complex systems in aerospace, marine, mechanical, and naval engineering. He is a member of the National Academy of engineering, a member of the Royal Academy of Engineering (UK), a Fellow of AIAA, ASME, IACM, SIAM, and USACM, and an ISI Highly Cited Author in Engineering. He is also the recipient of many other professional and academic distinctions including the Spirit of Saint Louis Medal and Lifetime Achievement Award from ASME, the Ashley Award for Aeroelasticity and the Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Award from AIAA, the Gordon Bell Prize and Sidney Fernbach Award from IEEE, the John von Neumann Medal from USACM, the Grand Prize from the Japan Society for Computational Engineering and Science, and the Gauss-Newton Medal from IACM. He was selected by the US Navy as a Primary Key-Influencer, flown by the Blue Angels during Fleet Week 2014, and appointed to the Air Force Science Advisory Board.

Steve Shaw

Track 5: Dynamics, Vibration, and Control

Name: Steve Shaw, Department of Mechanical and Civil Engineering at Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Florida

Presentation Title: The interplay of nonlinearity and noise in tiny resonators

Abstract: Vibrating structures with dimensions on the scale of micro-meters are playing increasingly important roles in sensors and frequency sources (i.e., clocks) that are widely used in commercial devices, including smart phones. Some basic differences exist between such small structures and their macro-scale counterparts, the most important of which are their relatively high frequencies and small damping. These features provide many practical benefits that include resonant operation in the radio frequency range, the ability to utilize electrostatics for actuation and readout, and the on-chip integration of mechanical and electronic elements. However, micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) resonators are highly susceptible to noise and nonlinearity and one of the basic challenges in their design is maintaining a good signal to noise ratio without driving them into nonlinearity. This presentation will provide an overview of the roles of nonlinearity and noise in MEMS resonators and describe how a fundamental understanding of these effects can play an important role in improving their performance. Specific examples will be taken from time-keeping applications, where it has been demonstrated that nonlinear operation can reduce phase noise in MEMS-based clocks, and from resonant sensors, where it is shown that the input-output gain in rotational rate vibratory gyros can be increased by exploiting nonlinear mode coupling. The presentation will describe relevant modeling, analysis, design, and experimental results.

Acknowledgments: This work is currently supported by the NSF. It is carried out in close collaboration with groups led by Mark Dykman at Michigan State University, Daniel López at Argonne National Labs, Oriel Shoshoni at Ben Gurion University, Tom Kenny at Stanford University, and Kimberly Foster at Tulane University.

Bio: Steve Shaw is Harris Professor in the Department of Mechanical and Civil Engineering at Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Florida, USA. He is also University Distinguished Professor Emeritus in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Adjunct Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Michigan State University. He received an A.B. in Physics and an M.S.E. in Applied Mechanics from the University of Michigan and a Ph.D. in Theoretical and Applied Mechanics from Cornell University. His research interests focus on the understanding and utilization of nonlinear dynamic behavior in engineering systems. Current applications include the interplay of nonlinearity and noise in micro/nano-scale resonators and the development of torsional vibration absorbers for automotive drive-train components. Steve has held visiting appointments at Cornell University, the University of Michigan, Caltech, the University of Minnesota, the University of California-Santa Barbara, and McGill University. He is a Fellow of ASME and serves as an Associate Editor for the SIAM Journal on Applied Dynamical Systems. He is recipient of the Henry Ford Customer Satisfaction Award, the ASME Henry Hess Award, the SAE Arch T. Colwell Merit Award, the ASME N. O. Myklestad Award, and the ASME Thomas K. Caughey Dynamics Award.

Anna Stefanopoulou

Track 6: Energy

Name: Anna Stefanopoulou, University of Michigan

Presentation Title: Battery State Estimation: A technology where the mechanical, thermal, electrical and chemical engineering disciplines merge.

Bio: Prof. Anna Stefanopoulou is the William Clay Ford Professor of Manufacturing and the Director of the Energy Institute at the University of Michigan. She was an assistant professor at the University of California, Santa Barbara and a technical specialist at Ford Motor Company. She is an ASME (08), an IEEE (09) and a SAE (18) fellow, an elected member of the Executive Committee of the ASME Dynamics Systems and Control Division and the Board of Governors of the IEEE Control Systems Society. Her innovation in powertrain control technology has been recognized by multiple awards and has been documented in a book, 21 US patents, 340 publications (7 of which have received awards) on estimation and control of internal combustion engines and electrochemical processes such as fuel cells and batteries. She was a member of the 2016 National Research Council (NRC) committee on fuel efficient technologies and their cost effectiveness in meeting the 2025 US national vehicle fuel economy standards. She is working now with an NRC committee on the fuel economy standards "beyond-2025".

Anabela Alves

Track 7: Engineering Education

Name: Anabela Alves, University of Minho University of Minho

Presentation Title: Role of Lean Education in Preparing Future Workforce: Closing the Academic and Professional Gap

Abstract: Academic and professional worlds are kept apart from working together by an invisible barrier. Nevertheless, the academia is preparing the future professionals and to achieve this preparation, a tuning between professional needs and academic teaching is critical. Though the academia has an important role in forecasting the future needs, the professionals, many times, are in better conditions to forecast due to their proximity to the market and its needs. So a joint work must be done between these two worlds. Lean Education derives from a methodology that emerged in the industry, and nowadays is spread to all industries and services, including the education services, not only as a way to improve these services but more importantly, as a pedagogical platform to innovate the learners’ curricula and better prepare them for the professional world. Lean education allows development of competencies such as systems thinking, critical analysis, sustainability and ethical issues, assessment challenges of the overall performance of a system as opposed to the detailed functions of a component, as well as establishing criteria for, and transparency of decision making. This plenary addresses the above deficiencies from a holistic perspective, accounting for issues in communications, teamwork across discipline and geographic borders, and project/design status visualization. Lean Education’s role as a holistic perspective and as a curricular innovation capable of developing the competencies missing in the current engineering curricula that bridge the gap between the academic and professional worlds. The talk covers sustainability and systems concepts of Lean Education, identification of strategies and weaknesses in current curricula, competencies and skills needed to an organizational health and Lean Education’s capability in providing content and competency mastery pulled by stakeholders (society, employers, faculty, students).

Bio: Anabela C. Alves, an expert in lean education, is a faculty in the Department of Production and Systems/School of Engineering/University of Minho. She holds a PhD in Production and Systems Engineering, being affiliated to Centre ALGORITMI. Her main research interests are in the areas of Production Systems Design and Operation; Lean Production (Lean Education, Lean Healthcare, Lean Services, Lean Product Development, Lean & TRIZ, Lean-Green and Lean & Ergonomics); Production Planning and Control, Project Management and Engineering Education, with particular interest in active learning methodologies, e.g. Project-Led Education (PLE) and Project/Problem-Based Learning (PBL). She is author/coauthor of more than 100 publications in conferences publications or communications, 4 books, 4 editions of conference proceedings, 17 book chapters and 27 international journal articles. She participated in 26 events abroad and 27 in Portugal. She directed several graduate theses during her teaching career. She is member of the Scientific and Organizing Committee of the International Symposium on Project Approaches in Engineering Education (PAEE). She is member of the following societies and networks: SOCOLNET - Society of Collaborative Networks; Portuguese Society of Engineering Education (SPEE); Portuguese Institute of Industrial Engineering (IPEI); American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME); Lean Education Academic Network (LEAN), European Professors of Industrial Engineering and Management (EPIEM) and IEM Care Foundation. She participated in three partnerships R&D projects with Bosch Car Multimedia. Her publications could be consulted at: ORCID.

Philip Smith

Track 8: Fluids Engineering

Name: Philip Smith, Institute for Clean and Secure Energy, Institute for Clean and Secure Energy Presentation

Title: Using Uncertainty Quantification with HPC to Reconcile Models and Measurements

Abstract: Bayesian methods for uncertainty quantification (UQ) provide the opportunity to identify model form uncertainty in both measurements and models. Under sponsorship of the US DOE NNSA we have used HPC (10 - 250 thousand cores) with scalable large eddy simulations (LES) for utility scale (100 - 1000 MW) particle-laden pulverized coal and biomass power boilers. We have found that these UQ-methods have allowed us to use data from models and measurements to extrapolate from laboratory scale experiments to full-scale predictions. The resulting Bayesian posterior predictive includes the effect of uncertainty from model parameters, scenario parameters, and model form uncertainty in both the instrument models and the predictive physics-based LES models.


Bio:
Present:
  • Director, Institute for Clean and Secure Energy (ICSE), The University of Utah
  • Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Utah
  • Director, Carbon Capture Multidisciplinary Simulation Center (CCMSC), a U.S. Dept. of Energy NNSA Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program Center
  • Chair, American Flame Research Committee (AFRC), a national committee of the International Flame Research Foundation, Liverno, Italy
  • President, CRSim Inc., a Utah Company
Past:
  • 2000-2007: department chair, Chemical Engineering, The University of Utah
  • 1990-1997: cofounder and vice-president, Reaction Engineering International
  • 1984-1990: head, Combustion Computations Laboratory, Advanced Combustion Engineering Research Center (ACERC), an NSF - ERC, Brigham Young University
  • 1982-1983, staff member, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Energy (Q) Division
  • 1979-1990: Asst. & Assoc. Professor, Brigham Young University
David Sinton

Track 8: Fluids Engineering

Name: David Sinton, University of Toronto

Presentation Title: The smallest fluids technologies for the largest fluids challenge: Microfluidics for energy and the environment

Abstract: Energy and the environment constitute the world’s most large-scale fluids challenges. The world's smallest fluids technologies have an important role to play in assessing and informing energy technologies as well as predicting environmental impacts. In this talk I will outline our group's efforts in developing microfluidics and nanofluidics for energy and environmental applications in three areas: (i) analyzing fluids to improve the efficiency of current, large scale energy operations; (ii) converting CO2 into valuable chemical feedstocks via electrocatalytic flow cells powered by renewable electricity; and (iii) assessing the environmental impact of elevated CO2, microplastics, and other local stressors on organisms and model ecosystems. I will close by suggesting additional emerging opportunities for the fluids community to contribute to energy and environmental challenges, particularly through the deep integration of microfluidics, robotics and machine learning.

Bio: David Sinton is a Professor in the Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering at the University of Toronto, and the Canada Research Chair in Microfluidics and Energy. He was the Associate Chair of Research in Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, as well as the Interim Vice-Dean of Research in the Faculty of Applied Science & Engineering. Prior to joining the University of Toronto, Dr. Sinton was an Associate Professor and Canada Research Chair at the University of Victoria, and a Visiting Associate Professor at Cornell University. The Sinton Lab is application-driven and develops fluid systems for energy and the environment. The group developed a library of industrial fluid testing systems to improve chemical performance in the energy industry, now commercialized through the startup Interface Fluidics. The group is currently developing fluid systems to produce renewable fuels from CO2, to develop energy efficient industrial working fluids, and to quantify the environmental impacts of future climate conditions. Dr. Sinton was an NSERC E.W.R. Steacie Memorial Fellow, and is a FASME and FAAAS. He serves on the advisory board of the journal Lab on a Chip.

Karen Thole

Track 9: Heat Transfer and Thermal Engineering

Name: Karen Thole, Pennsylvania State University

Presentation Title: Using Additive Manufacturing to Advance Designs in Convective Cooling

Abstract: Recent technological advances in the field of additive manufacturing (AM) have widened the design space for complex convective cooling designs. Using additive manufacturing allows for increasingly small and complex geometries to be fabricated with little increase in time or cost. The opportunity for heat transfer engineers is to exploit the use of additive manufacturing in re-thinking how to optimize cooling schemes for components, or generate novel heat transfer surfaces. Interesting roughness features result when using additive manufacturing, which are a strong function of the build parameters. The inherent roughness using additive manufacturing can, in fact, be used to improve convective heat transfer beyond that of highly engineered surfaces. New design tools can generate components with enhanced performance, although further improvements in accounting for roughness are needed.

Bio: Dr. Karen A. Thole is a Distinguished Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at The Pennsylvania State University. Dr. Thole’s expertise is heat transfer and cooling of gas turbine airfoils through detailed experimental and computational studies. At Penn State, Dr. Thole founded the Steady Thermal Aero Research Turbine Laboratory (START) lab, which houses a unique test turbine facility and is a center of excellence in heat transfer for a major gas turbine manufacturer. Dr. Thole has published over 230 archival journal and conference papers supervised over 65 dissertations and theses. She currently serves as a Governor on ASME’s Board of Governors and is a member of NASA's National Aeronautics Committee. She has been recognized by the U.S. White House as a Champion of Change for STEM, the Rosemary Schraer Mentoring Award, and the Howard B. Palmer Faculty Mentoring Award. Dr. Thole also received the 2014 Society of Women Engineer’s Distinguished Engineering Educator Award, the 2015 ASME George Westinghouse Gold Medal, the 2016 Edwin F. Church Medal and the 2019 AIAA Air Breathing Propulsion Award. She holds two degrees in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Illinois and a PhD from the University of Texas at Austin.

Track 9: Heat Transfer and Thermal Engineering

Name: John Bischof, University of Minnesota

Presentation Title: Nanowarming for Regenerative Medicine

Abstract: This talk will explore the underlying physics and advantages of nanoparticle-based rewarming technologies for regenerative medicine. Gold and iron oxide nanoparticles have unique and tunable properties that allow transduction of optical or radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields to affect heating of biomaterials at multiple scales (1 µL droplets to L containers). Indeed, both nanoparticle types have a long history of use for controlled heating in the treatment of cancer. This talk will explore the use of nanoparticle heating for a new application entitled “nanowarming,” which allows both rapid and uniform rewarming of vitrified (i.e. cryopreserved) biomaterials back from the cryogenic state, thereby avoiding crystallization and cracking failures. This warming, which can range from 100s °C/min with iron oxide RF heating to 10,000,000 °C/min with laser gold warming, addresses a rewarming technology bottleneck for vitrified large (i.e. tissues and organs) and small systems (i.e. embryos and oocytes). New capabilities in cell, tissue, and rodent organ cryopreservation, including the first zebrafish embryo cryopreservation yielding live and reproducing fish, will be presented. In summary, this talk demonstrates the growing opportunities for nanoparticle heating in regenerative medicine.

Bio: Bischof works in the area of thermal bioengineering with a focus on biopreservation, thermal therapy, and nanomedicine. His awards include the ASME Van Mow Medal and Fellowships in societies including Cryobiology, JSPS, ASME and AIMBE. He has served as the President of the Society for Cryobiology and Chair of the Bioengineering Division of the ASME. Bischof obtained a B.S. in Bioengineering from U.C. Berkeley (UCB) in 1987, an M.S. from UCB and U.C. San Francisco in 1989, and a Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from UCB in 1992. After a Post-doctoral Fellowship at Harvard in the Center for Engineering in Medicine, he joined the faculty of the University of Minnesota in 1993. Bischof is now a Distinguished McKnight University Professor and Kuhrmeyer Chair in the Departments of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, and the Medtronic-Bakken Endowed Chair and Director of the Institute for Engineering in Medicine at the University of Minnesota.

William Parnell

Track 10: Advanced Materials: Design, Processing, Characterization and Applications

Name: Zhigang Suo, Harvard University

Presentation Title: Integrated Soft Materials

Abstract: An integrated circuit achieves its function by integrating dissimilar components, and so does a living organ. Soft materials—tissues, elastomers, hydrogels, and ionogels—are under intense development for immediate and far-reaching applications. Examples include tissue regeneration, synthetic biology, drug delivery, soft robots, ionotronics, bioelectronics, skin-attached and implanted devices, active textiles, as well as wearable and washable devices. Nearly all applications require the integration of dissimilar soft materials. This talk describes several recent examples of integrated soft materials that achieve unusual functions. Also highlighted are fundamental challenges to the mechanics and chemistry of materials, such as adhesion, fatigue, and seal. Integrated soft materials open opportunities to reinvent our disciplines and ourselves. Bio: Zhigang Suo is Allen E. and Marilyn M. Puckett Professor of Mechanics and Materials at Harvard University. He earned a bachelor’s degree from Xi'an Jiaotong University in 1985, and a Ph.D. degree from Harvard University in 1989. Suo joined the faculty of the University of California at Santa Barbara in 1989, Princeton University in 1997, and Harvard University in 2003. His research centers on the mechanics of materials. Applications include electronics, composites, and stretchable devices. He served on the executive committee of the ASME Applied Mechanics Division.

Irene Beyerlein

Track 10: Advanced Materials: Design, Processing, Characterization and Applications

Name: Irene Beyerlein, UC Santa Barbara

Presentation Title: Material and microstructural features that prompt sub-crystalline localization in polycrystalline high-performance alloys

Abstract: Improved prediction of the behavior of materials under the complex loading conditions encountered in structural components is critical to ensure reliable, long-term performance and to guide the design of new materials along high controlled processing paths. However, a major challenge for structural materials is the strong dependence of the intrinsic plastic deformation processes on material structure, with important features at the nanoscale, microscale and mm-scale in most classes of metallic materials. Deformation processes are typically highly heterogeneous, propagating through complex microstructure-dominated networks, ultimately resulting in local damage and failure of the part. Cyclic and monotonic loading are performed on a number of high-performance alloys, such as high strength titanium aerospace alloy and Ni-based superalloys. Using a combination of in-situ deformation DIC and synchrotron measurements, 3D microstructural characterization, and 3D crystal plasticity based computational modeling, we investigate the micromechanical and microstructural factors leading to strain localization and subsequent slip band initiation. This suite of techniques altogether enables full-field measurement and modeling of the plastic and elastic field at the surface and in the bulk of the specimen. The analysis focuses on the coupled role of elastic anisotropy, grain neighborhoods, and grain shape and size in determining the location of the exceptionally preferred points of high elastic strain concentration and localized slip, when the applied strain is under but near the macroscopic elastic-plastic transition. We find that the very few localized slip bands are correlated with the development of only the highest elastic strain concentrations. Strain localization is specifically favored in crystals that have an outstandingly compliant orientation relative to all its neighbors and a non-equiaxed shape with sharp corners. These results explain that the presence of annealing twins in the microstructure significantly increases the probability of localization.

Bio: Irene J. Beyerlein is a professor at the University of California at Santa Barbara with a joint appointment in the Mechanical Engineering and Materials Departments. After receiving her Ph.D. degree in Theoretical and Applied Mechanics at Cornell University in 1997, she began a postdoctoral appointment as a J.R. Oppenheimer Fellow at Los Alamos National Laboratory, where she remained on the scientific staff in the Theoretical Division, until 2016. She has published one book, nine book chapters, and more than 290 peer-reviewed articles in the field of structural composites, materials processing, multiscale modeling of microstructure/property relationships, deformation mechanisms, and polycrystalline plasticity. She is an editor for Acta Materialia and Scripta Materialia and an associate editor for Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering. In recent years, she has been awarded the Los Alamos National Laboratory Fellow’s Prize for Research (2012), the International Plasticity Young Researcher Award (2013), the TMS Distinguished Scientist/Engineering Award (2018), and the Brimacombe Metal (2019).

Kaushik Bhattacharya

Track 11: Mechanics of Solids, Structures and Fluids

Name: Kaushik Bhattacharya, California Institute of Technology

Presentation Title: Getting Stuck and Breaking Free: Adhesion, Friction, Strength and Toughness

Abstract: Many phenomena of scientific and technological interest are described by the evolution of free boundaries or free discontinuities. Examples include the peel front while peeling an adhesive tape, the rupture front of earthquakes, dislocations in solids and the crack set during fracture. This evolution takes place in a heterogeneous medium where the length-scale of the heterogeneities are much smaller than the length scale of interest. In such situations, it is natural to seek the overall or effective behavior at the scale of interest. This effective behavior is not characterized by averaging, but instead dominated by critical events. Thus, the effective behavior can be qualitatively different from the local behavior. This makes such problems difficult to study, but also offers opportunities for exploiting heterogeneities to dramatically material properties. This talk will discuss the underlying issues with examples drawn from fracture, friction, dislocation dynamics, phase boundary propagation and peeling of adhesive tape.

Bio: Kaushik Bhattacharya is Howell N. Tyson, Sr., Professor of Mechanics and Professor of Materials Science as well He received his B.Tech degree from the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, India in 1986, his Ph.D from the University of Minnesota in 1991 and his post-doctoral training at the Courant Institute for Mathematical Sciences during 1991-1993. He joined Caltech in 1993. He has held visiting positions at Cornell University (1988), Heriot-Watt University in Scotland 1992), Max-Planck-Institute at Leipzig (1997-98), Isaac Newton Institute at the University of Cambridge (1999), Indian Institute of Science at Bangalore (2001) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (2006) and the University of Cambridge (2008-09). He has received the Distinguished Alumni Award of the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, the Outstanding Achievement Award of the University of Minnesota (2018), the Warner T. Koiter Medal of the American Society of Mechanical Engineering (2015), Graduate Student Council Teaching and Mentoring Award at Caltech (2013), Young Investigator Prize from the Society of Engineering Science (2004), the Special Achievements Award in Applied Mechanics from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (2004) and the National Science Foundation Young Investigator Award (1994). He was Editor of the Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids (2004-2015) and currently serves on the Editorial Board of a number of journals.

Ellen Arruda

Track 11: Mechanics of Solids, Structures and Fluids

Name: Ellen Arruda, University of Michigan

Presentation Title: Experimental Characterization, Constitutive Modeling, and Computational Simulations of the Soft Tissues of the Knee

Abstract: Injuries in soft tissues of the knee such as the anterior cruciate ligament (or ACL) and the femoral and tibial cartilages occur in elite athletes and weekend warriors alike. A long-term goal of my work in this area is to prevent many of these injuries. Not enough work has been done to understand the finite deformation response of these non-linear, anisotropic poro-visco-elastic tissue structures - not to mention how they fail. This talk will focus on our recent efforts to characterize the ACL response utilizing full-field displacement measurement techniques that offer more accurate, repeatable, and comprehensive experimental data than traditional testing methods. We've pioneered full-volume characterization techniques that provide much needed insight into the inaccuracies associated with many current experimental protocols and also the shortcomings of some popular constitutive models in capturing the full 3D response of the ACL. I will describe how we use these data to develop constitutive models for soft tissues and implement them into computational models of the knee for gait analysis and impact loading simulations. Accurate computational models of the knee such as ours may one day be used to guide clinical practice to determine the best course of action to repair an injury.

Bio: Professor Ellen M Arruda is the Tim Manganello/BorgWarner Department Chair of Mechanical Engineering, and the Maria Comninou Collegiate Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Michigan. She also holds courtesy appointments in Biomedical Engineering and in Macromolecular Science and Engineering. Professor Arruda earned her BS degree in Engineering Science (with Honors) and her MS degree in Engineering Mechanics from The Pennsylvania State University, and her PhD degree in Mechanical Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She joined the UM faculty in 1992.

Professor Arruda teaches and conducts research in the areas of theoretical and experimental mechanics of macromolecular materials, including polymers, elastomers, composites, soft tissues and proteins, and in tissue engineering of soft tissues and tissue interfaces. Her recent honors and awards include the 2017 Rice medal from the Society of Engineering Science, the 2015 Outstanding Engineering Alumnus Award from the Pennsylvania State University, the 2014 Distinguished Faculty Achievement Award from the University of Michigan, the 2014 Trudy Huebner Service Excellence Award from the College of Engineering, University of Michigan, the Ann Arbor Spark Best of Boot Camp award 2012, the 2012 Excellence in Research Award by the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, the cover article in Tissue Engineering, January, 2012, and the 2012 Ted Kennedy Family Team Excellence Award from the UM College of Engineering.

Professor Arruda has more than 100 papers in scientific journals. She also holds eleven patents. Her H-index is 32 (ISI). Professor Arruda is a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the American Academy of Mechanics, and the Society of Engineering Science. She is a member of the National Academy of Engineering (class of 2017). She is currently President of the American Academy of Mechanics.

Bruce K. Gale

Track 12: Micro-and Nano-Systems Engineering and Packaging

Name: Bruce K. Gale, University of Utah

Presentation Title: Taking Microfluidics from Research Ideas to a Real Product

Abstract: Microfluidics have promised to revolutionize medicine and biology for decades now, but the promise has been slow to be realized. Many applications of microfluidics are now having an impact. This presentation will focus on a few technologies and how they have transitioned (or begun to transition) from the research lab to commercialization. The talk with show how simple microfluidic platforms can be used to solve complex problems biological problems with an emphasis on mechanical engineering approaches. The presentation will explore a few of our recently developed technologies in particular: human sperm trapping and sorting for fertility treatment using inertial microfluidics with non-Newtonian fluids, pathogen detection from food using complex microfluidic devices¸ and fast polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chips for rapid personal and medical analysis that take advantage of microfluidic scaling laws. A few of our recent medical device projects will also be highlighted, including a vascular coupling device and a nerve regeneration device.

Bio: Bruce K. Gale, received his undergraduate degree in Mechanical Engineering from Brigham Young University in 1995 and his PhD in Bioengineering from the University of Utah in 2000. He was an assistant professor of Biomedical Engineering at Louisiana Tech University before returning to the University of Utah in 2001 where he is now Chair and a professor of Mechanical Engineering. He is currently Director of the Utah State Center of Excellence for Biomedical Microfluidics, a center devoted to research and commercialization activities around microfluidic devices. His primary interests include solving medical, biology, and chemistry problems using a variety of microfluidic approaches to complet complex and challenging medical and biological assays. Specifically, he is working to develop a microfluidic toolbox and approaches for the rapid design, simulation, and fabrication of devices with medical and biological applications. The ultimate goal is to develop platforms for personalized medicine, which should allow medical treatments to be customized to the needs of individual patients. As an outgrowth of his work, 5 companies have been formed and he maintains a role at each. The first is Carterra, a multiplexed instrument development company focused on protein characterization in the pharmaceutical industry that was spun out of his lab in 2005. The others include: Espira, which focuses on pathogen detection and exosome separations; Nanonc, which focuses on reproductive medicine applications of microfluidics; wFluidx, which focuses on genotyping zebrafish embryos; and Microsurgical Innovations, which focuses on miniature medical devices.

Chang-Jin Kim

Track 12: Micro-and Nano-Systems Engineering and Packaging

Name: Chang-Jin “CJ” Kim, University of California, Los Angeles

Presentation Title: Drag Reduction of Watercraft: Microfluidics Applied to Macroscale Objects

Abstract: When an object (e.g., boat) moves in a liquid (e.g., water), drag impedes its motion, consuming energy and limiting speed. Since maritime transportation alone accounts for a significant portion of the global oil consumption and greenhouse gas generation, a reduction of the water drag by even a small fraction would have a considerable benefit worldwide. Because the skin friction drag is the largest portion of the total drag experienced by most water vehicles, numerous mechanisms to reduce the skin friction have been explored for decades. However, none has been widely accepted because of poor energy efficiency. About a decade ago, superhydrophobic (SHPo) surfaces started to receive significant attention because the air layer between water and the surface can lubricate the water flows, decreasing the skin friction. Unlike other existing gas-lubricating methods, SHPo surfaces would hold a gas layer (called plastron) within the microscopic structures on the surface, making it possible to reduce skin friction without consuming energy to provide the gas. Despite two decades of research, however, drag reduction with SHPo surfaces has not been obtained for the most coveted application example, i.e., high Reynolds number flows in open water. This talk will present our recent achievement, i.e., the first successful large drag reductions (~30%, up to ~40%) with SHPo surfaces using credit-card-size samples tested under a boat on the sea at Reynolds number as high as 1.14x107 (friction Reynolds number as high as 5800). The results attest the importance of microscopic nuances of SHPo surfaces for a given application even if it is of macroscale, suggesting directions for other future goals as well.

Bio: Professor CJ Kim received his B.S. from Seoul National University, M.S. from Iowa State University, and Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley, all in mechanical engineering, and joined the faculty at UCLA in 1993. Holding the Distinguished Professor title and the Volgenau Endowed Chair in Engineering, he directs the Micro and Nano Manufacturing Lab to perform research in MEMS and Nanotechnology, including design and fabrication of micro/nano structures, actuators and systems, with a focus on the use of surface tension. The recipient of the Research Excellence Award (Iowa State Univ.), TRW Outstanding Young Teacher Award (UCLA), NSF CAREER Award, ALA Achievement Award, Samueli Outstanding Teacher Award (UCLA), and Ho-Am Prize in Engineering, Prof. Kim has served on numerous professional and governmental committees and panels in MEMS and nanotechnology, including General Chair of the 2014 IEEE International Conference on MEMS. An ASME Fellow, he is currently serving as Senior Editor of the IEEE Journal of MEMS and on the Editorial Advisory Board for IEEJ Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Engineering. He has also been active as a scientific advisor, consultant, and founder of start-up companies.

Bilal Ayyub

Track 13: Safety Engineering, Risk and Reliability Analysis

Name: Bilal Ayyub, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland

Presentation Title: System Resilience: Definitions, Quantification and Associated Economics

Abstract: The concept of resilience is applicable to systems with anticipated performances and subject to disturbances. Understanding and quantifying resilience enable societies to use resources efficiently for enhancing or maintaining the performance of systems such as infrastructure. For example, natural disasters as disturbances resulted in worldwide direct damages of US$366 billion and 29,782 fatalities in 2011 alone. Storms and floods accounted for up to 70% of the 302 natural disasters worldwide, with earthquakes producing the greatest number of fatalities. Managing these risks and others rationally requires an appropriate definition of resilience and associated metrics. This presentation provides a resilience definition that meets a set of requirements with clear relationships to reliability and risk as key relevant metrics. Such metrics provide a sound basis for the development of effective decision- and policy-making methods for multihazard environments for various system types including lifeline, environmental, financial, etc. systems. The presentation also examines recovery, with its classifications based on level, spatial, and temporal considerations. The economics of resilience is briefly discussed.

Bio: Dr. Ayyub is a University of Maryland Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Professor of Reliability Engineering, and Professor of Applied Mathematics and Scientific Computation. Dr. Ayyub’s main research interests are risk, resilience, uncertainty, decisions, and systems applied to civil, mechanical, infrastructure, energy, defence and maritime fields. Dr. Ayyub is a distinguished member of ASCE, and a fellow of the Structural Engineering Institute, the Society for Risk Analysis, ASME, and SNAME. Dr. Ayyub completed projects for governmental and private entities, such as the National Science Foundation, Department of Defence, Hartford, Chevron, Bechtel, etc. Dr. Ayyub is the recipient of several awards and research prizes from ASCE, ASNE, ASME, ENR, the Department of the Army, etc. He has authored and co-authored more than 650 publications including 8 textbooks and more than 15 edited books. He is also the founding Editor-in-Chief of the ASCE-ASME Journal of Risk and Uncertainty in Engineering Systems in. His most recent 2018 edited book on Climate-Resilient Infrastructure published by ASCE was selected as an Engineering-News Record Newsmaker in 2017.

David Rosen

Track 14: Design, Systems and Complexity

Name: David Rosen, Singapore University of Technology & Design and Georgia Institute of Technology

Presentation Title: Design for Additive Manufacturing: Opportunities and Challenges

Abstract: Broadly speaking, the idea of design for additive manufacturing (DFAM) is to explore new design spaces to take advantage of the unique capabilities of AM processes. With tremendous design freedom available, resulting device designs can be complex geometrically, with complex material and property distributions, that perform multiple functions. At the same time, AM processes perform millions of operations to fabricate a part. Is it any wonder that parts exhibit more variability than in conventional manufacturing processes? In this talk, I explore the opportunities and challenges surrounding these issues of DFAM. Regarding opportunities, I highlight two directions. First, I present the idea of simultaneous design of a part, its material, and its manufacturing process since these are intimately linked in additive manufacturing. The fundamental need is to integrate materials information, specifically process-structure-property relationships, in order to determine if desired spatial distributions of properties are feasible given a material and a manufacturing process. Second, I highlight the need for methods of robust and reliability design to address process variabilities and enable part qualification. Regarding challenges, several topics are addressed, starting with the rapid changes in the AM industry. Additionally, a core attribute of AM processes is that both the part geometry and part material is fabricated simultaneously, in contrast to conventional manufacturing processes, which is the source of many challenges. The talk concludes with an overview of commercial software offerings to support DFAM, as well as standardization efforts that offer guidance to designers.

Bio: David Rosen is a Professor in the School of Mechanical Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology (on leave). Additionally, he is the Research Director of the Digital Manufacturing and Design Centre at the Singapore University of Technology & Design. He received his Ph.D. at the University of Massachusetts in 1992 in mechanical engineering. His research interests lie at the intersection of design, manufacturing, and computing with specific focus on additive manufacturing (AM), computer-aided design, and design methodology. He has industry experience, working as a software engineer at Computervision Corp. and a Visiting Research Scientist at Ford Research Laboratories. He is a Fellow of ASME and has served on the ASME Computers and Information in Engineering Division Executive Committee. He is the recipient of the 2013 Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, International Freeform and Additive Manufacturing Excellence (FAME) Award and the co-author of a leading textbook in the AM field.