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Track Plenary Speakers

John Willis

Thursday, November 4, 2021, 11:20AM - 12:05PM

Name: John R Willis, University of Cambridge

Presentation Title: Transmission and Reflection of Energy at the Surface of a Composite

Abstract: While the propagation of waves through a composite (or metamaterial) is by now well understood, there has been much less study of the boundary layers that are bound to be present adjacent to any free surface, or interface between a composite and another material. Such boundary layers are unimportant when frequencies are sufficiently low that there is a separation of scales between the wavelengths of the dominant waves and the scale of the microstructure but become increasingly significant as frequency increases. In the case of any composite with random microgeometry, even the dominant mean wave is evanescent, which explains, for instance, why there has to be a trade-off between resolution, frequency and distance of penetration in non-destructive evaluation by ultrasound. There is also the apparent paradox that the mean wave decays while, in the absence of physical dissipation, the energy must be conserved. This presentation will illustrate these considerations by study of the problem of transmission and reflection at the boundary of a model composite for which an exact explicit solution can be obtained. The composite is a randomly heterogeneous two-component acoustic medium. Each component has the same elastic modulus but they have different densities. The only information that is given comprises the volume fractions and the two-point correlation. The response of this medium is approximated by employment of a closure assumption analogous to the quasi-crystalline approximation. A variational formulation is employed for the entire medium, which consists of the composite occupying x2 > 0 and uniform material occupying x2 < 0. A plane wave is incident from x2 < 0. The particular choice of an exponentially-decaying two-point correlation yields the surprising feature is that this approximation admits a mean wave comprising two plane waves, both attenuating as they propagate. There are correspondingly two transmission coefficients so that determination of these and the reflection coefficient is impossible just from the requirements of continuity of displacement and traction. The mathematical problem posed by this variational approximation can, however, be solved exactly, essentially by the Wiener-Hopf method. The energy that is reflected back into the uniform material has contributions both from the mean reflected wave and from the incoherent reflection. Both depend on frequency but are independent of distance from the interface. The transmitted energy is similarly partitioned but is progressively transferred from the coherent signal into the incoherent components as the mean waves decay away from the interface. Conservation of energy remains exactly satisfied. Perhaps the most novel aspect is that a reflection coefficient can be defined for the flux of energy carried by the incoherent part of the reflected wave.

Bio: John Raymond Willis is Emeritus Professor of Theoretical Solid Mechanics in the University of Cambridge, having previously held full-time appointments at Imperial College London, the Courant Institute New York, Cambridge, Bath and then again Cambridge. He was also Professeur de Mecanique (part-time) at Ecole Polytechnique from 1998 to 2004. Professor Willis is a Fellow the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications (FIMA) and the Royal Society of London (FRS). He is also a Foreign Associate of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering (2004) and the French Académie des Sciences (2009). He is the recipient of the Governors' Prize in Mathematics from Imperial College (1961), the Adams Prize from the University of Cambridge (1971), the Timoshenko Medal from ASME (1997), the Prager Medal from the Society of Engineering Science (1998), and the Euromech Solid Mechanics Prize (2012). He was Editor of the Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids from 1982 to 2006. His research interests are centered around mathematical investigation of problems arising in the mechanics of solids, including the statics and dynamics of composite materials, dislocation theory, nonlinear fracture mechanics, elastodynamics of crack propagation, and ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation. His recent research has concentrated on problems of strain-gradient plasticity and waves in metamaterials.


Kevin Chou

Wednesday, November 3, 2021, 11:50AM - 12:35PM

Name: Kevin Chou, National Science Foundation

Presentation Title: From Hard Turning to Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Journey of Manufacturing Research

Abstract: Over the past few decades, we have all witnessed the sweeping and powerful evolution of manufacturing technologies, manufacturing enterprise and manufacturing ecosystem, and so forth, which impact not only the industry, but also the society and the globe as a whole. The transformation has, no doubts, also had significant influence to manufacturing research activities in the academe. Beginning a career at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, my research then was focused on hard turning, a slight variation of traditional machining. Today, roughly 25 years later, my group is wholly occupied by the ever increasingly studied additive manufacturing, mostly the metal laser powder-bed fusion technology. In this talk, I will share some interesting work with technical details from my research journey, highlight worth-noting results, as well as toss some ideas for future endeavor. Additionally, I will attempt to draw your attention to discuss some factors, e.g., public policy on manufacturing, attributed to the crusade of rising manufacturing research in U.S. universities, using my limited experience from serving in the Advanced Manufacturing National Program Office a while ago. In the end, I will underline fundamental research in advanced manufacturing areas recently funded by NSF and seek your comments and feedback.

Bio: Currently serving as a Program Director, Kevin Chou joined the NSF (as IPA) in April 2020 from University of Louisville (UofL), where he is the Edward R. Clark Chair of Advanced Manufacturing. Affiliated with Industrial Engineering Department, Dr. Chou also directed UofL’s Additive Manufacturing Institute of Science and Technology (AMIST) from Jan. 2019 – Apr. 2020. He received his Ph.D. from Purdue University and post-doc training from National Institute of Standards and Technology. His research interest includes a broad range of manufacturing processes as well as relevant multidisciplinary fields, with the current focus on metal additive manufacturing, supported by multiple federal agencies (NASA, NSF, NIST, etc.) and the industry. Dr. Chou’s group has published over 170 refereed papers and been granted with 3 patents. He is the recipient of 2016 SME RAPID Dick Aubin Distinguished Paper from SME’s Rapid Technologies & Additive Manufacturing Community. Dr. Chou is a Fellow of American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), for which he led the Technical Program of its International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference in 2011 and served as the Chair of its Manufacturing Engineering Division (MED) (Jan. 2018 – Jun. 2019). He received the Outstanding Service Award from ASME’s MED (August 2020). From Aug. 2014 – Aug. 2015, Dr. Chou was the Assistant Director for Technology in the Advanced Manufacturing National Program Office in the U.S. Department of Commerce, supporting the Manufacturing USA initiative.

Richard Fonda

Tuesday, November 2, 2021, 11:50AM - 12:35PM

Name: Richard Fonda, Naval Research Laboratory, Office of Naval Research

Presentation Title: Towards Validation of Additive Manufacturing of 316 L Stainless Steel

Abstract: Additive manufacturing has the potential to revolutionize fabrication of multifunctional, low volume, and geometrically complex components. In addition, the distinctive processing window employed by additive manufacturing provides an opportunity to achieve material properties beyond the current state of the art. For example, additively manufactured 316L stainless steel has demonstrated strengths 2-3 times the strength of conventionally-produced material. To make use of this technology, however, we need to both reduce the variabilities currently present in this process, whether it be between machines, build locations, or positions within the build, as well as ensure a sufficient understanding of the resulting microstructures, mechanical properties, and corrosion behavior to provide the needed confidence in this technology and the parts manufactured with it. The latter topic is the subject of this presentation.

Since the microstructures dictate the properties that will be exhibited, confidence in the additive manufacturing process requires an understanding of the microstructures produced across the relevant length scales and how those microstructures give rise to the observed properties. Thus, we have characterized the initial microstructure of laser-powder bed fusion additively manufactured 316L, revealed how that microstructure evolves with isothermal or hot isostatic press post processing, and correlated these results to the mechanical and corrosion behavior of the build. Porosity is one of the most important microstructural features in an AM build, with strong dependencies on the size, number, and morphology of pores present. The grain structure and the sub-grain cellular features can also have a substantial effect on the properties of the build, as do the precipitates that develop during high temperature exposures. General trends in mechanical behavior across these microstructural variations are assessed by microhardness testing, while tensile and fatigue testing are used to reveal the details of the mechanical performance metrics. The corrosion performance of additively manufactured structures is of critical importance to the Navy. We have evaluated the corrosion behavior of additively manufactured 316L using potentiodynamic polarization testing, revealing a loss in passivity at the as-built surface due to the high density of pores at that location. Within the interior of the build, the corrosion behavior exhibits significant variations as a function of post-processing condition, and thus microstructure. While temperatures above 800 °C cause a loss of passivity relative to that exhibited in the as-built condition and from lower temperature treatments, increasing post-processing temperatures also causes a delay in the onset of crevice corrosion. And while hot isostatic pressing is effective at removing a large fraction of the original pores, it also results in both an accelerated corrosion of the build and an expedited onset of crevice corrosion, presumably due to the presence of precipitates produced during that process.

Bio: Dr. Richard Fonda has worked at the US Naval Research Laboratory for more than 25 years on a variety of topics including high strength steels, joining technologies, three-dimensional microstructures, and additive manufacturing. He is currently head of the Microstructural Evolution and Joining section. In 2014, he also became a program officer for the Manufacturing Science programs at the Office of Naval Research, where he supports fundamental research on manufacturing technologies of interest to the Navy.

Nancy Sottos

Wednesday, November 3, 2021, 11:50AM - 12:35PM

Name: Nancy Sottos, University of Illinois- Urbana Champaign

Presentation Title: Eco Manufacturing of High Performance Thermoset Polymers and Composites

Abstract: Conventional manufacturing of high-performance thermoset polymers and fiber-reinforced polymer composites requires curing at elevated temperatures for several hours under combined external pressure and internal vacuum. Curing is generally accomplished using large autoclaves or ovens that scale in size with the component. This traditional curing approach is slow and requires a large amount of energy and capital investment. Moreover, the thermoset polymers produced cannot be recycled. Consequently, when these materials reach their end-of-life-use, they are downcycled or discarded in landfills. Our collaborative strategy for sustainable manufacturing and end-of-life management involves incorporating cleavable comonomers into the matrix of composite materials. The cyclic comonomer enables programmed deconstruction into oligomeric products that are upcycled to regenerate a thermoset with excellent mechanical properties. Utilizing frontal ring opening metathesis polymerization (FROMP) as a manufacturing platform, we rapidly manufacture these materials using near zero energy consumption. The cleavable functionality leads to efficient deconstruction, while maintaining the excellent mechanical properties, long term stability and degradability of the comonomer resins.

Bio: Nancy Sottos holds the Maybelle Leland Swanlund Endowed Chair and is Head of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Illinois Urbana Champaign. She is leader of the Autonomous Materials Systems (AMS) group at the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology. Inspired by autonomous function in biological systems, the Sottos group develops polymers and composites capable of self-healing and regeneration, self-reporting, and self-protection to improve reliability and extend material lifetime. Her current research interests focus on new bioinspired methods to manufacture these complex materials. Sottos' research and teaching awards include the ONR Young Investigator Award, Scientific American's SciAm 50 Award, the Hetényi Best Paper Award in Experimental Mechanics, Fylde Best Paper Award in the journal Strain, the M.M. Frocht, the B.J. Lazan and the Charles Taylor Awards from the Society for Experimental Mechanics, the Daniel Drucker Eminent Faculty Award, the IChemE Global Research Award, and the Society of Engineering Science Medal. She is a member of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), Society for Experimental Mechanics (SEM) and the Society for Engineering Science (SES).

Yi Cui

Thursday, November 4, 2021, 11:20AM - 12:05PM

Name: Yi Cui, Stanford University

Presentation Title: Reinventing Batteries Through Materials Design

Abstract: The fast growth of portable power sources for transportation and grid-scale stationary storage presents great opportunities for battery development. The invention of lithium ion batteries has been recognized with Nobel Prize in 2019. How to increase energy density, reduce cost, speed up charging, extend life, enhance safety and reuse/recycle are critical challenges. Here I will present the 15 year research in my lab to reinvent batteries and address many of challenges by understanding the materials and interfaces through new tools and providing guiding principles for design. The topics to be discussed include: 1) A breakthrough tool of cryogenic electron microscopy, leading to atomic scale resolution of fragile battery materials and interfaces. 2) Materials design to enable high capacity materials: Si and Li metal anodes and S cathodes. 3) Interfacial design with polymer and inorganic coating to enhance cycling efficiency of battery electrodes. 4) Materials design for safety enhancement. 6) Lithium extraction from sea water and for battery recycling. 7) New battery chemistry for grid scale storage.

Bio: At Stanford University, Yi Cui is the director of the Precourt Institute for Energy, co-director of the StorageX Initiative, professor of materials science and engineering and of photon science at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. A cleantech pioneer and entrepreneur, Cui earned his bachelor's degree in chemistry in 1998 from the University of Science & Technology of China and his PhD in chemistry from Harvard University in 2002. He was a Miller Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of California, Berkeley from 2002 to 2005 before joining the Stanford faculty. Cui manages a large Stanford research group, from which alumni have succeeded in academia and businesses. He has founded four companies to commercialize the energy and environment technologies from his lab: Amprius Inc., 4C Air Inc., EEnotech Inc. and EnerVenue Inc.

A preeminent researcher of nanotechnologies for better batteries and other sustainability technologies, Cui has published more than 500 studies and is one of the world's most cited scientists. He is an elected fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Materials Research Society, and the Royal Society of Chemistry. He is an executive editor of Nano Letters and co-director of the Battery 500 Consortium.

In 2021, U.S. Department of Energy awarded Cui an Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award which honors mid-career scientists and engineers in eight research fields. Other awards include: Materials Research Society Medal (2020), Electro Chemical Society Battery Technology Award (2019), Nano Today Award (2019), Blavatnik National Laureate (2017), and the Sloan Research Fellowship (2010).

Shery Welsh

Thursday, November 4, 2021, 11:20AM - 12:05PM

Name: Dr. Shery Welsh

Presentation Title: Pivot to Space: Achieving Parity in Space-related Basic Research Investments

Abstract: Basic research is the long game. It is an invitation to discovery and surprising insights into the natural world through rigorous investigation and understanding. This understanding can lead to groundbreaking ideas, theories and principles that drive progress. As part of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), the mission of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) is to discover, shape and champion bold, high-risk, high-reward basic research that profoundly impacts the future Air Force and now Space Force. It is to create today's breakthrough science for tomorrow's Force. AFRL is one laboratory supporting two services, and as such charges AFOSR to take purposeful steps towards achieving parity in space-related basic research investments across all scientific disciplines. Through strategic partnerships with government, academia and industry that spread investments across a wide range of disciplines, diverse grantees, and creative partnering arrangements; AFOSR drives interdisciplinary collaboration for maximum discovery potential. This diversity also spurs opportunities to enhance the human talent pipeline and generates innovative approaches for communicating the value of basic research to every audience. This talk explores the strategic vision, targeted messaging, and tactical processes needed to remove science roadblocks in the pivot to space, energize and diversify the STEM workforce today and of the future, and accelerate change or lose.

Bio: Dr. Shery Welsh is the Director, Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), Arlington, Virginia. In this role she leads the management of the Department of the Air Force’s global basic research investment. AFOSR has a staff of 200 scientists, engineers and administrators in Arlington and foreign technology offices in London, England, Tokyo, Japan, Santiago, Chile and Melbourne, Australia. Dr. Welsh ensures the success of a nearly $500 million/year basic research investment portfolio and the transition of resulting discoveries to other components of the Air Force Research Laboratory, defense industries and other DoD components. AFOSR’s annual investment in basic research is distributed among roughly 300 academic institutions worldwide, 100 industry-based contracts, and more than 250 internal AFRL research efforts.

Sergio Pellegrino

Monday, November 1, 2021, 1:10PM - 1:55PM

Name: Sergio Pellegrino, California institute of Technology

Presentation Title: Instabilities in Coilable Thin Shell Structures

Abstract: Coiling is an efficient way of packaging thin, long, slender structures that has been widely used for deployable spacecraft booms. The advent of advanced composites has allowed a range of cross-sections to be designed and built, but some unexpected and rather subtle instabilities have been observed. In this talk, I will present and explain the observed instabilities, and present a theory that predicts the formation of propagating buckles in both open- and closed-section thin shell booms. With the help of this theory, we can design booms that minimize the amplitude of the buckles and hence decrease the likelihood of damage during coiling.

Bio: Sergio Pellegrino is the Joyce and Kent Kresa Professor of Aerospace and Civil Engineering at the California Institute of Technology, JPL Senior Research Scientist and Co-Director of the Space Solar Power Project. In 2019 he was the Michael M. Byram Distinguished Visiting Professor, Ann & H.J. Smead Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder.

Pellegrino's general area of research is the mechanics of lightweight structures, focusing on packaging, deployment, shape control and stability. He has authored over 300 technical publications on these topics and received 10 patents. He has recently co-authored with Koryo Miura the book Forms and Concepts for Lightweight Structures (Cambridge University Press, 2020). Pellegrino is a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering, a Fellow of AIAA and a Chartered Structural Engineer. He is current President of the International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures.

Bruce Rubin

Thursday, November 4, 2021, 11:20AM - 12:05PM

Name: Bruce Rubin

Presentation Title: Effective Aerosol Therapy in Children and Novel Devices

Abstract: Aerosol therapy is a mainstay for the treatment of airway diseases. Medication delivered by aerosols is generally less expensive, works more rapidly, and produces fewer side effects in the same medications delivered systemically. As well medications can often be delivered to the airways that would otherwise be rendered ineffective if given systemically.

The requirements for aerosol therapy depend greatly on the target site of action and the underlying disease. Asthma medications should deposit on the conducting airways while peptides intended for systemic absorption would require deposition at the alveolar capillary bed. Examples of the latter include insulin for the treatment of diabetes and inhaled growth hormone (1). Effective deposition requires ultrafine particles to allow them to penetrate to the deep lung, a slow inhalation, and relatively normal airways that do not hinder aerosol penetration. Furthermore, the forces needed to generate the aerosol should not degrade these proteins.

Classically, aerosol bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are used to treat asthma. Effective deposition requires particle size and inspiratory flow appropriate for airway deposition with sufficient resident time in the airway to allow sedimentation. Generally, this means high efficiency production of particles between 0.5-5 µm mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) inhaled with a slow inspiratory flow and a breath hold. Many devices have been developed to facilitate effective inhalation. Some common reasons for therapeutic failure of these aerosol medications include the use of inactive or depleted medications, inappropriate use of the aerosol device, and poor adherence to prescribed therapy (2, 3).

There are additional challenges when aerosol medications are used in infants and small children (4), or during an acute asthma attack. Rapid respiratory rate and patient anxiety lead to depositing more drug in the oral pharynx and less in the airways. Airway obstruction and inhomogeneous ventilation may also limit the targeted deposition of medications. Although all of the commonly used aerosol devices (jet nebulizers, pressurized metered dose inhalers, and dry powder inhalers) have been shown to be equally effective when used correctly the ability to use these during an acute asthma exacerbation may be compromised.

These challenges are even greater when the patient is in respiratory failure on a mechanical ventilator. Depending on humidification within the ventilator circuit and the ventilator duty cycle there may not be adequate time for the aerosol cloud to develop in the circuit and the geometry of the circuit may hinder the deposition of the aerosols in the airway (5).

Other medications that have been used for the treatment of airway disease include mucolytics such as dornase alfa used to treat cystic fibrosis (CF) and aerosolized antibiotics such as tobramycin solution. Pulmonary deposition of these medications can be severely compromised when the airway is filled with pus. Both dornase and aerosol antibiotics are unlikely to penetrate to the deep lung despite good devices (6). It is possible that the use of surfactants as a carrier or as a therapeutic agent may help to clear the airways and to transport medication such as these into the deeper lung.

This challenge is even greater when delivering gene therapy vectors to the airway. These are very large molecules often unstable to nebulization, requiring precise dosing, and administered to patients with lung disease. Nevertheless, techniques are being developed to improve the deposition of these vectors in the lungs particularly of patients with CF (7).

The nasal passage is an additional target for drug therapy. Pump inhalers have been used to administer decongestions or corticosteroids to the nose but deposition into the sinuses is poor. Because of the importance of sinus deposition of antibiotics and other medications for the treatment of chronic sinusitis there is active investigation not only into developing devices for nasal inhalation but also mechanisms (such as humming after inhalation) that may help to deposit medications within the nose and sinuses (8).

Despite the mechanical and engineering challenges in designing devices for aerosol administration, the clinician's greatest challenge is patient education to use their medications and aerosol devices appropriately (3).

Bio: Bruce Rubin is the Jessie Ball duPont Distinguished Professor of Pediatrics at Virginia Commonwealth University, and was Chair of Pediatrics and Physician in Chief of the Children’s Hospital of Richmond from 2009-2020. He is also Professor of Biomedical Engineering and affiliate Professor of Physiology and Biophysics at VCU. As a Rhodes Scholar, he trained in Biomedical Engineering at Oxford University and then did his fellowship in Paediatric Respirology at Sick Kids in Toronto. He holds the MD and Masters in Engineering degrees from Tulane, and an MBA degree from Wake Forest University Babcock School of Business. He, the International Congress of Pediatric Pulmonology (CIPP), and the American Respiratory Care Foundation, and he is Medical Advisor to the Virginia Society of Respiratory Care. He is a fellow of the AAP, elected to the APS, and a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada.

Dr. Rubin received the Forest Bird Lifetime Scientific Achievement Award and the Jimmy A Young Medal from the AARC, the Prix extraordinaire from CIPP and he is a Prix Galien Laurate. He holds honorary appointments in four medical schools, is on the editorial board of 10 journals, has published more than 300 original research papers ((H-index 68) and chapters, and holds 10 patents. His research focus is regulation of mucus clearance in health and disease, airway inflammation and immunomodulation, cough, and aerosol delivery of medications.

Dr. Rubin is also a magician, elected to membership in the International Brotherhood of Magicians (Wizard Award) and over the past 25 years has taught medical magic in 40 countries on 5 continents.


Wednesday, November 3, 2021, 11:50AM - 12:35PM

Name: Josh Duckworth

Presentation Title: Monitoring of Sub concussive Blast Overpressure Exposure in Military Personnel - Sensors, Variables, and Physiologic Associations

Abstract: The long-term effects of repeated sub-concussive blast exposures (RSCBE) are unknown. Evaluation of blast exposures in deployed settings during Operation Enduring Freedom demonstrated that 2/3 of all recorded blast exposure among service members occurred during training. The COmbat and traiNing QUeryable Exposure/event Repository (CONQUER) operational monitoring program has collected individual-level blast exposure data during 185 combat training cycles/events among service members representing the U.S. Army, Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force, including both Special Operations and Conventional Forces, as well as National Guard units. CONQUER is designed to capture, quantify and report blast overpressure events experienced by service members to command leadership at multiple levels. CONQUER currently employs the Black Box Biometrics (B3) Generation 7 Blast Gauge System, which consists of three separate recording devices mounted on the head, shoulder and chest of service members collects quantified blast exposure data such as peak overpressure, peak overpressure impulse, number of exposures, and date/time of exposure for a subject during routine combat training operations. When a gauge is triggered above a settable threshold, a 20 ms recording of pressure vs. time is created, which can be examined and analyzed. Historically, the analysis of these data has been a labor intensive and time-consuming effort that required a blast expert to review overpressure versus time waveforms to identify recordings that may not have represented actual blast recordings. In these cases, each analyst would manually create graphics to summarize the data. However, this process and the parameters used to define real vs. potentially errant recordings have differed across analysts and groups. We have developed and are testing a standardized automated approach to process these data substantially that reduces manpower requirements. CONQUER data processed using the software that automatically identifies errant blast overpressure recordings has significantly reduced the manpower needed to analyze data. Using these standardized automated methods enables much more rapid creation of reports of blast exposure history for a unit. To date, approximately 6,000 gauge sets have been issued, more than 300,000 blast gauge recordings have been captured and over 150,000 full waveforms have been processed. Over 185 unit level and personnel level reports have been created and delivered to commanders since 2018.

Service members involved in heavy weapons training (HWT) courses or exercises will be exposed to repetitive sub-concussive blast exposure events (RSCBE). Instructors at heavy weapons training (HWT) schools may experience high number of HWT-associated blast exposures per year during a 2-3 years of assignments. Over the last decade, the operational, research, and medical communities have become increasingly aware that repetitive sub-concussive blast exposure (RSCBE) may cause acute, cumulative, and long-term clinical and physiologic effects. Service members involved in certain routine combat training courses or exercises will be exposed to multiple, primarily sub-concussive, blast overpressure events. RSCBE has historically been associated with clinical signs such as a decrease in neurocognitive function and subjective symptoms that are similar to those of post-concussive syndrome (headache, memory loss, changes in mood, inability to sleep, balance problems) but the long-term effects are largely unknown.

We have hypothesized that RSCBE causes lasting molecular level damages in the brain. INVestigating the neurologic effects of Training Associated Blast (I-TAB), monitored service members undergoing HWT with shoulder-fired recoilless weapons using serum based proteomic evaluations. Blood samples were collected from Students (n=6) and Instructors (n=10) at baseline, 6hrs, 24hrs, 72hrs, 2 weeks, and 3 months after HWT. Serum samples were isolated on site, aliquots were snap frozen, and shipped frozen for proteomics analysis. Serum samples were analyzed by using the reverse phase protein microarray (RPPM), a high sensitivity, high throughput proteomics platform to determine the serum levels of: ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Claudin 5 (CLDN5), occluding (OCL), membrane metalloprotease 9 (MMP9), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 7 subunit (CHRNA7) RPPM analyses were performed according to established procedures. Compared to the serum levels obtained before HWT, serum levels of all biomarkers were elevated following HWT both in the Instructor Group and in the Student Group; serum biomarker levels of all protein biomarkers tested were significantly higher in Instructors than in Students; serum levels of most of the tested protein biomarkers were the highest at 3 months post-training in the Student Group; autoantibody titers of proteins related to vascular and neuroglia-specific proteins were elevated in Students at 3 month after HWT as compared to the baseline levels. Our preliminary results from our pilot study indicates suggest that HWT may be associated with vascular and neuroglia insult and inflammation lasting for at least 3 months following exposures, based upon or observation of and results in elevated titers of autoantibodies against vascular and neuroglia specific proteins over time.

Bio: Professor of Neurology at the F. Edward Hebert School of Medicine at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS) where his research efforts are focused towards the understanding and management of traumatic brain injury related pathophysiology. He is currently conducting two clinical trials evaluating the neurologic effects of repetitive blast exposure and participating in a multicenter trial evaluating the effect of repetitive head impact in collegiate sports. He oversees a laboratory and translational TBI program targeting the molecular and cellular responses associated with sub-clinical and concussive forces, to include alterations in the neuronal membrane such as, the scaffolding protein Caveolin-1 and its role in membrane/lipid raft (MLR) formation and localization and Integrin activation and the relationship to cell adhesion and migration, the extracellular matrix (ECM), and mechano-transduction. Dr Duckworth has in-vitro and in-vivo models of both blast and impact which allow for translation and investigation of the primary and secondary response to these external forces. His medical training as Staff Neurologist/Neurointensivist and his research experience make him well qualified to perform investigator responsibilities in this study. He has been involved in numerous peer-reviewed publications that addressed traumatic brain injury and neurological disorders.

Yoram Halevi

Thursday, November 4, 2021, 11:20AM - 12:05PM

Name: Yoram Halevi, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology and Shenkar College of Engineering, Design, Art

Presentation Title: Multi-Level Optimization: When Optimal Control Meets Evolutionary Algorithms

Abstract: Optimal control of dynamical systems is a well-established problem with well-known solution. Mathematically, it can be formulated as a classical calculus of variations problem and a solution, consisting of a solvable set of differential equations, is derived accordingly. While theoretically fully solved, in practice there are formidable computational problems ahead. The differential equations are notoriously hard to solve because they constitute a two point boundary value problem (TPBVP), and inherently stiff. Furthermore, the problem needs to be solved in one block, i.e. no segmentation is possible. Evolutionary algorithms are in a way the opposite approach. They are iterative procedures that use the model of the system just to calculate the fitness function but otherwise are very generic. Notable properties are that the size of the problem is not directly related to the computational effort and the flexibility in dealing with variables of different types. The complementing properties of the two approaches call for judicious combination of them by creating a bi-level (multi-level in general) optimization problem. Topics that need to be addressed in that process include the definition of global parameters, the segmentation, and the interplay between higher and lower levels. The general approach will be demonstrated by a detailed solution of a specific problem: minimizing the invested energy in a partially prescribed end-effector motion of a manipulator with redundant degrees of freedom.

Bio: Yoram Halevi is currently the Dean of Engineering at Shenkar – Engineering, Design, Art and a Professor Emeritus at the Technion, Israel Institute of Technology. He has been with the Technion for over 30 years, and held the James H. (Jimmy) Belfer chair in Mechanical Engineering until his retirement in 2020. Dr. Halevi received his B.Sc., M.Sc. and D.Sc. degrees in Mechanical Engineering from the Technion. He held visiting positions at Penn State, Ohio State and Virginia Tech in the US and in CNR-ITIA in Milan, Italy as well as short term visits to other universities and research institutes. At the Technion he was Dean of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Dean of the Division of Continuing Education and External Studies. His public activities include serving as President of Israel Association of Automatic Control, Member of ASME Europe Executive Council and Chair of ASME Europe conference committee. His research interests are in control of flexible structures, optimal control of redundant actuation systems, model order reduction and model updating. Yoram Halevi is a Fellow of ASME.

Michael P. Paidoussis

Monday, November 1, 2021, 1:10PM - 1:55PM

Name: Michael P. Paidoussis

Presentation Title: Pipes Conveying Fluid: A Flourishing Model Dynamical Model

Abstract: In a 1993 paper, the dynamics of a pipe conveying fluid was labelled a model dynamical problem, on the same footing as that of a column subjected to an end‐load. From 1939 to 1986, with a concentrated effort in the 1950's and 60's, 92 substantial papers on the subject were published; i.e., an overall average of 2 papers/year; but in the 2019‐2021 period this exploded to 31 papers/year, an astonishing progression.

Many variations on the theme have been studied, mainly on the dynamical behaviour and stability of the pipe, among them:

  • Articulated, curved, tapered pipes
  • Pipes with added springs, added masses, attached plates, end‐nozzles, on elastic foundations
  • Rotating, spinning, loosely supported, flexibly supported, impacting pipes, extruding pipes
  • Laminar , turbulent, two‐phase, magnetic, pulsating flows
  • Aspirating pipes, pipes subjected to both internal and external axial flows
  • Very long, multiply supported, micro and nano pipes
  • 2D and 3D motions, subcritical and supercritical bifurcations, double degeneracies and chaos
  • Pipes of functionally graded materials, with smart material overlays
  • Resolved and unresolved paradoxes

In this lecture, some of the above, selected for their intrinsic interest, will be discussed, mainly in physical rather than mathematical terms. Emphasis is placed on (i) the fundamentals and (ii) recent contributions.

Bio: Michael P. Païdoussis was born in Cyprus in 1935, and was educated in the Greek Schools of Egypt, McGill University and the University of Cambridge, receiving his B.Eng. in Mechanical Sciences (with honours) in 1958 and his Ph.D. (Cantab) in Engineering in 1963. He has been Overseas Fellow at GEC in Britain (1958-60) and Research Officer at Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (Applied Physics Division, 1963-67) in Chalk River, Canada. He joined the Department of Mechanical Engineering of McGill University in 1967. Promoted to Professor in 1976, he served as Chairman of the Department from 1977 to 1986, and is now the Thomas Workman Emeritus Professor.

Since 1960, he has worked on various aspects of fluid-structure interactions and flowinduced vibrations and instabilities. He is the author of "Fluid‐Structure Interactions: Slender Structures and Axial Flow", Vol. 1 (1998, Academic Press, London), Vol. 2 (2004, Elsevier Academic Press, London); 2nd editions in 2014 and 2016. He is also the leading author of "Fluid‐Structure Interactions: Cross‐Flow‐Induced Instabilities" (2011, Cambridge, University Press). He has published over 265 papers in refereed journals and 175 full papers in refereed conference proceedings; h-index: 69.

He has received a British Association Medal for High Distinction in Mechanical Engineering (1958), the George Stephenson Prize from the Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE), the CANCAM Prize in 1995, and the ASME 1999 and 2016 Fluids Engineering Award and Medal, and the Worcester Reed Warner Award and Medal in 2017.

He is Fellow of IMechE, ASME, CSME, the American Academy of Mechanics, the Royal Society of Canada (Academy of Science), and the Canadian Academy of Engineering. He has served as Chairman of Division III of IAHR (1981-87). He has been active in various committees of the Pressure Vessels and Piping, Fluids Engineering and Applied Mechanics Divisions of ASME; he was the ASME Calvin Rice Lecturer for 1992. From 1986 to 2014, he has been the Editor of the Journal of Fluids and Structures (Academic Press, now Elsevier). Now member of the Advisory Board of the Journal of Fluids and Structures and Journal of Sound and Vibration.

Bogdan I. Epureanu

Tuesday, November 2, 2021, 11:50AM - 12:35PM

Name: Bogdan I. Epureanu

Presentation Title: Data-driven Forecasting of Critical Transitions based on Invariants of Nonlinear Dynamics

Abstract: A variety of large dimensional systems, ranging from systems examined by engineering to others related to climate sciences and ecology, are at risk of critical transitions. These systems shift abruptly from one state to another when parameters that slowly and smoothly drift cross a threshold. It is exceedingly difficult to know if a system comes close to critical transitions because typically there are no easily noticeable changes in the system dynamics can be observed until it is too late and the transition has occurred. Furthermore, accurate models of many physical and engineered systems are often not available, and predictions based on incomplete models have limited accuracy. Thus, a significant challenge emerges. How could we forecast such transitions before they occur? The answer lies in a combined use of invariants in nonlinear dynamics and data-driven methods that together can predict such catastrophic events.

In this talk, we introduce a unique set of data-driven approaches developed to forecast critical points and post-critical dynamics using measurements of the system response collected only in the pre-transition regime. The forecasting approach is based on the phenomenon of critical slowing down, namely the slow dynamics systems exhibit near a tipping point. Based on observations of the system response to natural and controlled perturbations, the method discovers system's stability, resilience, and equilibriums in current and upcoming conditions. The application of this finding in physical experiments and computational methods will be demonstrated for a variety of natural and engineered systems including microsensors (vibration based mass detectors), aeroelastic systems (flutter of 2D airfoils and 3D wings), traffic flow systems (onset of traffic jams), electrical systems (nonlinear circuits), and population dynamical systems (yeast populations, ecological systems).

Bio: Bogdan I. Epureanu is an Arthur F. Thurnau Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Michigan and has a courtesy appointment in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. He received his Ph.D. from Duke University in 1999.

He is the Director of the Automotive Research Center, which leads the way in areas of autonomy of ground systems, including vehicle dynamics, control, and autonomous behavior, human-autonomy teaming, high performance structures and materials, intelligent power systems, and fleet operations and vehicle system of systems integration.

His research focuses on nonlinear dynamics of complex systems, such as teaming of autonomous vehicles, enhanced aircraft safety and performance, early detection of neurodegenerative diseases, forecasting tipping points in engineered and physical systems such as disease epidemics and ecology. His research brings together interdisciplinary teams and consortia such as Government (NIH, NSF, DOE, DOD), Industry (Ford, Pratt & Whitney, GE, Airbus), and Academia. He has published over 350 articles in journals, conferences, and books.

Petros Sofronis

Wednesday, November 3, 2021, 11:50AM - 12:35PM

Name: Petros Sofronis, University of Illinois- Urbana Champaign

Presentation Title: Powering the future through international partnerships for materials and engineering system solutions

Abstract: Achieving and even exceeding CO2 emission reduction targets and developing innovative safe and reliable energy systems are serious challenges. They require a paradigm shift in our approach to research that bridges not only multiple spatial, molecular to miles, and temporal scales, nanoseconds to decades, but it also necessitates bringing together scientists and engineers from disparate disciplines. In this presentation, I will showcase a number of engineering approaches from the International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research to explore i) the safe, and reliable production, storage, and utilization of hydrogen as a fuel, and ii) the underlying science of CO2 capture and storage technology or the conversion of CO2 to a useful product. Lastly, the reduction of CO2 emissions associated with the implementation of these technologies in Japan will be discussed.

In particular, development and validation of a lifetime prediction methodology for failure of materials used for hydrogen containment components requires thorough understanding of the deformation and fracture mechanisms at the atom- and micro-scale along with a solid mechanics approach to link these mechanisms with the macroscopically observed failure at the macroscale. I will present an approach to establish this link between microscale and macroscale in a number of material systems. Lastly, I will address issues of mitigation strategies such as the deceleration of hydrogen-induced fatigue crack growth by adding a few molecules of oxygen per million molecules to the hydrogen gas stream.

Bio: Over nearly 35 years, Professor Sofronis has educated hundreds of students in applied mechanics and researched the behavior of materials in adverse chemo-mechanical environments. He has studied hydrogen embrittlement through modeling and simulation at micro- and macro-levels, coupled with experimental observations of deformation processes at micro- and nano-scales. The UIUC theory on the hydrogen-induced shielding of defect interactions is a rational explanation of hydrogen-induced fracture mediated by dislocation plasticity. Professor Sofronis worked on mitigating embrittlement of materials for hydrogen applications, such as pipelines transporting hydrogen. Since 2010, he has led the International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (I2CNER), co-hosted by Kyushu University in Japan and the University of Illinois, and is funded by the World Premier International Research Initiative of Japan. Under his leadership, I2CNER developed into a world-class institute on fundamental research for the advancement of low carbon emission and cost-effective energy systems and improvement of energy efficiency. Currently, he is establishing the Midwestern Hydrogen Partnership, a collaboration between Argonne National Lab and UIUC to advance and promote the development and adoption of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies as important parts of the energy mix for the Midwestern states.


  • 2020 Frank Kreith Energy Award, ASME
  • 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Research and Development Award
  • 2009 Campus Award for Excellence in Graduate and Professional Teaching, UIUC
  • 2009 Fellow, ASME
  • 2006 Fellow, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Kyushu University
  • UIUC "List of Instructors Ranked as Excellent by Their Students" for 37 semesters, between Spring 1993 and Fall 2020

Dr. Ting Wang

Thursday, November 4, 2021, 11:20AM - 12:05PM

Name: Dr. Ting Wang, University of New Orleans

Presentation Title: Production of Cleaner Energy, Power, Fuels, and Chemicals via Gasification Technology

Abstract: Gasification is an endothermic reactive process that converts hydrocarbon feedstock into synthetic gases (or syngas) that can be further utilized to produce power, high-grade fuels (such as hydrogen, diesel, and jet fuels), and various chemicals (such as methanol, ammonia, and fertilizers). The hydrocarbon feedstock is widely available as coal, biomass, refinery bottom residues (such as petroleum coke, asphalt, visbreaker tar, etc.), and municipal wastes. The syngas can be cleaned and the produced carbon dioxide can be reused or sequestered, making the process cleaner and more environmental friendly. This presentation will focus on the thermodynamic aspect of the gasification process and its application to power generation, such as the traditional Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), in which the feedstock is fully and completely gasified into light gases, mainly consisting of hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

The traditional syngas cleanup methods are performed in a low-temperature environment, which requires the implementation of syngas cooling with an inevitable large loss of thermal efficiency. Recently, a warm gas cleanup process has been successfully developed, which has inspired the development of a conceptual Integrated Mild/Partial Gasification Combined (IMPGC) cycle, implemented with a post-combustion carbon capture process. The IMPGC cycle employs mild gasification to preserve the high-energy volatile matters within the feedstock , while the partial gasification is implemented to supplement the steam bottom cycle with a purely char-fired PC plant boiler. Therefore, much less energy is used to gasify the solid chars than go through the full and complete gasification. The performance of this newly conceptualized model is compared to those of other types of power plants. Furthermore, this conceptual (IMPGC) Cycle is shown to retrofit older pulverized coal plants and achieve significantly increased thermal efficiency than implement conventional retrofitting approaches.

Bio: Professor Ting Wang is currently the Director of Energy Conversion and Conservation Center (ECCC) and Matthey Endowed Chair for Energy Research of University of New Orleans (UNO). He is also a Professor of Department of Mechanical Engineering. Prior to UNO, he taught 15 years at Clemson University in South Carolina, USA. He has been involved in energy conservation and power generation in full spectrum for the past 40 years. He specializes in gas turbine power generation, turbomachinery, coal gasification, poly-generation, integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), Micro Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power (Micro-CCHP), multiphase flow heat transfer, energy efficiency, and general thermal-flow engineering.

Professor Wang received a Ph .D from University of Minnesota at Twin Cities in 1984 and an M.S. degree from the State University of New York at Buffalo with a major in mechanical engineering in 1981. He has published over 340 research papers and reports, He was the recipient of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) George Westinghouse Silver Medal for his contributions to power engineering in general and Edward F. Obert Award for his co-authored paper in the area of Integrated Mild-Partial Gasification Cycle (IMPGC). He was the Past Chair of two ASME committees (Coal, Biomass, and Alternative Fuels Committee and Gas Turbine Heat Transfer Committee). He has also served on the editorial board of three International Journals. He is an ASME Fellow.

Dr. Jill Seubert

Monday, November 1, 2021, 1:10PM - 1:55PM

Name: Dr. Jill Seubert

Presentation Title: Featuring Engineering Education: A Personal Trajectory to Becoming an Interplanetary Navigator

Abstract: Dr. Jill Seubert is an interplanetary navigator who has guided spacecraft across the solar system, including the Mars Perseverance rover. In this presentation, she discusses her experiences throughout her engineering education, and the path that led her from rural Pennsylvania to mission control at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Jill's childhood and early education was full of people who supported her interest in STEM subjects, and she chose to study aerospace engineering due in no small part to the romanticism of space exploration. The first time Jill watched a rover land on Mars was when Spirit bounced onto the surface, and Jill remembers one thing most clearly while watching the Mission Operations team at JPL celebrate: "I wish I were smart enough to do that someday."

15 years later, Jill now knows that she is smart enough to do that, and has since supported several highly-successful Mars landings and demonstrated new technology to push the limits of deep space navigation. This talk explores Jill's engineering education journey, including opportunities and experiences that formulated key engineering traits. Embracing lessons of the importance of adaptability and transparency, accrued through experiences in space mission operations, has forged Jill as a technical leader. Jill will also discuss her experiences as a minority gender in engineering, and how valuing her individuality and authenticity as well as technical integrity has made her a better engineer. The audience will recognize the importance of their individual role in the transformative engineering landscape and future STEM workforce development while learning many pointers for effectiveness from Dr. Seubert’s remarkable journey.

Bio: Dr. Jill Seubert is an interplanetary navigator at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and is a leading expert on astrodynamics, estimation, deep space navigation, high-fidelity clock stochastic modeling, and mission and science applications of one-way radiometric data. She has supported the navigation of numerous Mars missions, and was the Orbit Determination Lead for the Mars Science Mission 2020, guiding it to a safe landing on Mars on February 18, 2021. In addition to her work in interplanetary navigation, Dr. Seubert was the Deputy Principal Investigator of NASA’s Deep Space Atomic Clock Technology Demonstration Mission.

Dr. Seubert is the recipient of the University of Colorado College of Engineering Recent Alumni Award (2017) and Pennsylvania State University "40 Under 40" award (2021). She holds a B.S. degree in Aerospace Engineering from the Pennsylvania State University and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Aerospace Engineering Sciences from the University of Colorado at Boulder.

Mehrdad Zangeneh

Tuesday, November 2, 2021, 11:50AM - 12:35PM

Name: Mehrdad Zangeneh, University College London

Presentation Title: Multi-objective Inverse Design Based Automatic Optimization of Contra-rotating Low Head Reversible Pump Turbines for Energy Storage Applications

Abstract: Rapid growth in intermittent renewable energy, in order to meet the growing need for rapid decarbonisation, has created challenges in maintaining grid stability. Hydropower energy storage can play a key role in this area. However, up to now, hydro power energy storage has been relying on high head configurations which restrict applications to limited areas with the right topology. The EU's Horizon 2020 sponsored ALPHEUS project is involved in development of low head contra-rotating reversible pump turbine hydro storage which can enable larger scale application in most coastal areas. In this presentation, the design and optimization of a shaft driven contra-rotating pump-turbine by coupling a 3D inverse design method with surrogate model based optimization strategy will be outlined.

The 3D inverse design method computes the turbomachinery blade geometry for a specified distribution of blade loading and pressure field. The method enables designers to optimize turbomachinery vanes and blades by exploring a large design space without the trial and error of traditional design methodologies. There are also computational advantages in using inverse design as an optimization strategy. In this approach, the blade is parametrized by using the blade loading and not the blade geometry, which can significantly reduce the number of design parameters to cover the same design space. This feature improves the speed and accuracy of automatic optimization. In particular, by using the inverse design approach it is possible to achieve accurate surrogate model based optimization. This approach can then be used to solve difficult multi-point, multi-objective and multi-disciplinary problems under industrial time scales. The presentation starts from the basic initial flow path design of the contra-rotating pump turbine. This initial flow path is then used together with the 3D inverse design method to generate an initial 3D geometry of the contra-rotating pump turbine, which is then analysed in 3D CFD in pump and turbine modes at various conditions. This initial stage is then parametrized both in terms of 3D blade geometry and flow path by using a total of 21 design parameters for both blade rows. An initial sensitivity analysis is carried out to select the most influential 11 design parameters for detailed optimization using Kriging as surrogate model and 95 different configurations of the contra-rotating stage. The goal of the optimisation was to maximise the average power output of the turbine and minimise the power required for the pump, and reduce the risk of cavitation. Cavitation was considered because of its impact on fish mortality. The selected geometry obtained from the surrogate model based optimization process was verified by detailed CFD and significant improvement in stage efficiency were obtained in both pump and turbine modes.

Bio: Mehrdad Zangeneh is Professor of Thermofluids at University College London and Founding Director of Advanced Design Technology, Ltd. For the past 30 years he has been involved in development of advanced turbomachinery design codes based on 3D inverse design approach and automatic optimization to turbomachinery design. His research has resulted in important breakthroughs in radial turbomachinery, such as the suppression of secondary flows in radial and mixed flow impellers and the suppression of corner separation in vaned-diffusers. He has been granted 7 international patents. He is recipient of Japan's Turbomachinery Society's Gold Medal and the Donald Julius Grone Prize by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in UK. He has published more than 120 papers in journals and refereed conferences.


Tuesday, November 2, 2021, 11:50AM - 12:35PM

Name: Erika Gupta, U.S. Dept. of Energy

Presentation Title: Thermal Energy Management for Reduced CO2 emissions in Grid-interactive Efficient Buildings.

Abstract: Buildings account for over 70% of U.S. electricity consumption and power sector CO2 emissions and in general over 50% of building energy consumption can be attributed to thermal loads. Thermal energy management in buildings is there fore critical for both energy efficiency and grid flexibility where they are managed through electric powered devices such as heat pumps. Most regions of the U.S. experience peak loads on the electrical grid during the summer season. Improvements to HVAC efficiency and load shifting capabilities through thermal energy storage can help reduce peak loads attributed to HVAC in the residential and commercial sectors and enable loads to be shifted to generation periods with lower CO2 intensity. This plenary will provide an overview of the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's R&D activities in this space funded by the Building Technologies Office. The two key areas covered will be next generation HVAC and refrigeration technologies and thermal energy storage systems.

Bio: Erika Gupta is the acting program manager for the Emerging Technologies Program in EERE's Building Technologies Office. She is also the technology manager for the Sensors and Controls Subprogram. Her work at BTO leverages her controls background, focusing on building energy management controls and projects supporting controls for grid-integrated efficient buildings.

She first joined EERE as a technology development manager in the Fuel Cell Technologies Office in 2012, managing projects that could lower the cost of delivery of hydrogen. Prior to joining FCTO she worked in the fuel cell industry at Nuvera Fuel Cells. Prior to that, she spent time as a program engineer at Luminus Devices working on their Phlatlight LEDs. Erika also has a background in reliability engineering and predictive failure analysis.

She attained her B.S. in mechanical engineering at Boston University and M.S. in mechanical engineering, with a focus on control systems, at Worcester Polytechnic Institute and has recently completed a graduate certificate in cyber security from Harvard Extension School.

Summer Locke

Thursday, November 4, 2021, 11:20AM - 12:05PM

Name: Summer Locke, Boeing Research & Technology

Presentation Title: Global Collaboration Strategy for Tackling Integrated Thermal Systems Challenges in Aerospace Applications

Abstract: As new business models evolve around advanced technologies, significant improvements in the performance of aerospace platforms are possible by approaching designs as integrated mechanical systems. Optimizing across systems requires integrated model-based engineering and a multi-industry standards framework for test and validation. Multi-disciplinary systems design is ultimately about value creation: understanding the map of new business requirements and how they are enabled by modular architectures.

Collaboration across industries is critical to the transformation of aerospace production systems, and changing the way we design, manufacturing and test parts and tools. The aerospace military and commercial customers are facing an operational transformation enabled by advanced manufacturing business models that are driving new platform and service requirements. This talk will present examples of multi-disciplinary integrated design of heat exchangers, such as a high temperature pre-cooler, that required concurrent development of materials, manufacturing processes, and thermal system optimization. I will conclude with a discussion of how the Boeing Global Research and Development Strategy team is replicating this example with our approach to creating opportunities to accelerate technology infusion.

Bio: Summer Locke is a Boeing Associate Technical Fellow in Multi-Disciplinary Analysis and Optimization, and a Global R&D Portfolio Manager for collaborative projects with partners in Australia, UK, SE Asia, Norway, Saudi Arabia, and the US. She leads technology transition and implementation for research with national labs, and small to large suppliers. She specializes in complex systems, and is leading proposals for integrated thermal systems, satellite networks with optical quantum encrypted communications, remote sensing, 3D printed spare parts, and optimization of factory flow with Industry 4.0.

Ms. Locke has been with Boeing since 1996. She started her career in optimization of launch vehicle and satellite trajectories, and as a flight operations lead for eight missions on the Russian/Ukrainian Sea Launch and the Inertial Upper Stage programs. From 2007 - 2012, Locke led technology integration for Boeing Technology Ventures, interfacing with large corporate investors, Sandia and Los Alamos National Labs, and venture capital companies to develop supplier capabilities for new business pursuits for Boeing Commercial Airplanes and Boeing Defense, Space & Security. Before joining Boeing, she was a Satellite Design Engineer in the NASA Space Grant Program from 1994 to 1996.

She holds a Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering from Arizona State University and a Master of Science in Aerospace Engineering, Plasma Physics, from the University of Washington. Her thesis focused on modeling the performance of Hall thrusters for in-space propulsion.

Zdeněk P. Bažant

Monday, November 1, 2021, 1:10PM - 1:55PM

Name: Zdeněk P. Bažant, Northwestern University

Presentation Title: Reappraisal of Phase-Field, Peridynamics and Other Fracture Models in Light of Classical Tests and Gap Test

Abstract: The recently conceived gap test1,2, along with its simulations by crack band microplane models for concrete, shale, composites and plastic-hardening metals, sheds new light on the phase-field and peridynamics fracture models, newly popular in computational mechanics. The gap test1,2,3, which revealed that the fracture energy Gf (or Kc, Jcr) of a quasibrittle material or plastic hardening metal depends strongly on the level and history of crack-parallel stresses σxx (=T), σzz, σxz and can change Gf by even ±100%, is reviewed first. Then its implications for the newly popular models are discussed, and comparisons with a number of important classical tests of quasibrittle (concrete or rock) structures that have been previously ignored are also made. Optimal fitting of the data by state-of-art phase-field and peridynamics computer programs calibrated by basic material properties reveals severe discrepancies. While the phase-field models have certain advantages (being superior for static and dynamic propagation of curved and branching line cracks in perfectly brittle materials obeying LEFM) and could be generalized to different constant (non-varying) levels of crack-parallel stress, they are shown incapable of matching the results of classical fracture tests of typical quasibrittle structures (provided that the same set of model parameters is used for all the tests conducted on the same material). In these comparisons, peridynamics is found to be inferior in all cases, which reinforces the previous, strictly theoretical, critique4. The conceptual fault of peridynamics, both bond- and state-based, is that it implies a microstructure with exclusively axial force interactions and ignores shear-resisted particle rotations. Such rotations are what lends LDPM, a particle-based discrete model, its superior performance. The continuum-based crack band model with a realistic tensorial damage constitutive law (M7) fits the data from all the classical and gap tests closely. The previously discussed1,2,3 severe limitations of XFEM and cohesive crack models are also pointed out. In closing, the ubiquity of varying crack-parallel stresses in practical problems and their effects in concrete, shale, fiber composites, plastic-hardening metals and materials on submicrometer scale is emphasized.

References: (freely downloadable as # 612, 613, 620 and 567 here.
1Nguyen, Hoang T., Pathirage, M., Rezaei, M., Issa, M., Cusatis, G., and Bažant, Z.P. (2020). "New perspective of fracture mechanics inspired by gap test with crack-parallel compression." Proc. National Academy of Sciences 117(25), 14015 - 14020.
2Nguyen, Hoang T., Pathirage, M., Cusatis, G., and Bažant, Z.P. (2020). "Gap test of crack-parallel stress effect on quasibrittle fracture and its consequences." ASME J. of Applied Mechanics 87 (July), 071012-1 - 11.
3Nguyen, Hoang T., Dönmez, A. Abdullah, Bažant, Z.P. (2021). "Structural Strength Scaling Law for Fracture Plastic-Hardening Metals and Testing of Fracture Properties." Extreme Mechanics Letters 43, 101141, pp. 1 - 12.
4Bažant, Z.P., Luo, Wen, Chau, Viet T., and Bessa, M.A. (2016). "Wave dispersion and basic concepts of peridynamics compared to classical nonlocal models." J. of Applied Mechanics} ASME 83 (Nov.) 111004-1---16

Bio: Bio: Born and educated in Prague (Ph.D. 1963), Bažant joined Northwestern in 1969, where he has been W.P. Murphy Professor since 1990 and simultaneously McCormick Institute Professor since 2002, and Director of Center for Concrete and Geomaterials (1981-87). He was inducted to NAS, NAE, Am. Acad. of Arts & Sci., Royal Soc. London, the academies of Austria, Japan, Italy, Spain, Czech Rep., Greece, India and Lombardy, and Academia Europaea. Honorary Member of: ASCE, ASME, ACI, RILEM. Received Austrian Cross of Honor for Science and Art; 7 honorary doctorates (Prague, Karlsruhe, Colorado, Milan, Lyon, Vienna, Ohio State); ASME Medal, ASME Timoshenko, Nadai and Warner Medals; ASCE von K´arm´an, Freudenthal, Newmark, Biot, Mindlin and Croes Medals, and Lifetime Achievement Award; SES Prager Medal; Outstanding Res. Award, Am. Soc. for Composites; RILEM Gold Medal; Exner Medal (Austria); Torroja Medal (Madrid); etc. He authored nine books: Scaling of Struct. Strength, Creep in Concrete Str., Inelastic Analysis, Fracture and Size Effect, Stability of Structures, Concrete at High Temp., Creep & Hygrothermal Effects, Probab. Mech. of Quasibrittle Str., QuasbrittleFrac. Mech.; He is one of the original top 100 ISI Highly Cited Scientists in Engrg. H-index: 139, citations: 84,000, i10 index: 658 (Google, incl. self-cit.). In 2019 Stanford U. weighted citation survey (see PLoS), he was ranked no.1 in CE and no.2 in Engrg. worldwide. In 2015, ASCE established ZP Bažant Medal for Failure and Damage Prevention. His 1959 mass-produced patent of safety ski binding is exhibited in New England Ski Museum, Franconia, NH

Glaucio H. Paulino

Tuesday, November 2, 2021, 11:50AM - 12:35PM

Name: Glaucio H. Paulino, Georgia Institute of Technology

Presentation Title: Origami Engineering: Structures, Metamaterials, and Robots

Abstract: We study the geometric mechanics of origami assemblages and investigate how geometry affects behavior and properties. Understanding origami from a structural standpoint can allow for conceptualizing and designing feasible applications across scales and disciplines of engineering. We review the basic mathematical rules of origami and use 3D-printed origami legos to illustrate those concepts. We then present a reduced-order-model, which consists of an improved bar-and-hinge model, to simulate origami assemblages. We explore the stiffness of tubular origami and kirigami structures based on the Miura-ori folding pattern. A unique orientation for zipper coupling of rigidly foldable origami tubes substantially increases stiffness in higher order modes and permits only one flexible motion through which the structure can deploy. We couple compatible origami tubes into a variety of cellular assemblages that enhances mechanical characteristics and geometric versatility, leading to the design of structures and configurational metamaterials that can be deployed, stiffened, and tuned. We have designed, fabricated (using direct laser writing), and tested (SEM) this metamaterial at the micron-scale. This resulted not only in the smallest scale origami assembly, but also in a metamaterial with intriguing mechanical properties, such as anisotropy, reversible auxeticity, and large degree of shape recoverability. The presentation concludes with a vision toward the field of origami engineering, including origami robots with distributed actuation, allowing for on-the-fly programmability, and other interdisciplinary applications.

Bio: Professor Paulino is the Raymond Allen Jones Chair at the Georgia Institute of Technology. His seminal contributions in the area of computational mechanics include the development of methodologies to characterize the deformation and fracture behavior of existing and emerging materials and structural systems; topology optimization for large-scale multiscale/multiphysics problems; variational methods; deployable structures and origami engineering. Last year (2020), he received the Daniel C. Drucker Medal of ASME, the Raymond D. Mindlin Medal of ASCE, and the Reddy Medal from Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures (MAMS 2020). He also received the 2015 Cozzarelli Prize from the National Academy of Sciences, “which recognizes recently published PNAS papers of outstanding scientific excellence and originality.” He is a former President of the Society of Eng. Science (SES). Recently, he was elected to the US National Academy of Engineering (NAE). More information about his research and professional activities can be found here.

James Hone

Wednesday, November 3, 2021, 11:50AM - 12:35PM

Name: James Hone, Columbia University

Presentation Title: Tunable electronic and optical properties in rotatable heterostructures

Abstract: Van der Waals heterostructures, in which different two-dimensional (2D) materials are assembled into layered structures, provide a new opportunity to create tailor-made materials with new properties. Importantly, these properties are a function not only of the constituent materials but also the relative angle between the layers – leading to the new concept of 'twistronics'. The ultra-low friction between layers in these heterostructures provides a unique opportunity to create tunable materials whose properties can be changed by modifying the interlayer twist angle. To do this, we rotate the top layer of a heterostructure using a contact-mode atomic force microscope (AFM) to modify the interfacial twist angle and moirè wavelength, modifying a number of emergent properties. In this talk I will describe three applications of this technique: (1) tuning bandstructure in graphene-hBN interfaces1; (2) tuning symmetry in graphene with two hBN layers2; and tuning the nonlinear response of hBN-hBN interfaces3. I will also describe new efforts to use on-chip electrostatic actuation to control rotation.

1. Ribeiro-Palau, R., C.J. Zhang, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, J. Hone, and C.R. Dean, "Twistable electronics with dynamically rotatable heterostructures", Science 361, 690 (2018).
2. Finney, N.R., M. Yankowitz, L. Muraleetharan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, C.R. Dean, and J. Hone, "Tunable crystal symmetry in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures with coexisting moire superlattices", Nature Nanotechnology 14, 1029 (2019).
3. Kaiyuan Yao, Nathan R. Finney, Jin Zhang, Samuel L. Moore, Lede Xian, Nicolas Tancogne-Dejean, Fang Liu, Jenny Ardelean, Xinyi Xu, Dorri Halbertal, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, Hector Ochoa, Ana Asenjo-Garcia, Xiaoyang Zhu, D. N. Basov, Angel Rubio, Cory R. Dean, James Hone, P. James Schuck, "Enhanced tunable second harmonic generation from twistable interfaces and vertical superlattices in boron nitride homostructures", Science Advances 7, eabe8691 (2021)

Bio: James Hone is currently Wang Fong-Jen Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Columbia University. He received his BS in physics from Yale in 1990, and PhD in experimental condensed matter physics from UC Berkeley in 1998, and did postdoctoral work at the University of Pennsylvania and Caltech, where he was a Millikan Fellow. He joined the Columbia faculty in 2003. He served as director of Columbia's Materials Research Science and Engineering Center from 2014-2021, and currently serves as chair of the Department of Mechanical Engineering.

Antoine B. Rauzy

Monday, November 1, 2021, 1:10PM - 1:55PM

Name: Antoine B. Rauzy, Norwegian University of Science and Technology

Title: Towards a new generation of probabilistic safety assessment models and tools.

Abstract: This talk aims at presenting the most advanced research results regarding modeling methods, languages, and tools dedicated probabilistic risk and safety assessment of complex technical systems. We shall start by reviewing the conceptual foundations that frame the domain, namely the computational complexity of calculation of probabilistic risk indicators and the different categories of models. Then, we shall present the S2ML+X paradigm and its application to modeling languages dedicated to probabilistic risk and safety assessment. This paradigm is a new way of designing modeling languages based on the remark that any behavioral modeling language can be decomposed into two parts: a mathematical framework that is used to represent the behavior, the X, and a set of constructs to structure models. S2ML (system structure modeling language) is such set, gathering in a coherent way object-oriented and prototype-oriented constructs. We shall show by means of concrete examples the power of this approach.

Bio: Professor Antoine B. Rauzy is currently with the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Trondheim, Norway) and the head of the chair Blériot-Fabre, sponsored by the group SAFRAN, at CentraleSupélec (Paris, France). During his career, he moved forth and back from academia to industry, being notably senior researcher at CNRS, associate professor at Universities of Bordeaux and Marseilles, professor at Ecole Polytechnique and CentraleSupélec, CEO of the start-up ARBoost Technologies, and director of the R&D department of Systems Engineering at Dassault Systemes (largest French software editor).

Professor Rauzy got his PhD in 1989 and his habilitation à diriger des recherches (tenure) in 1996, both in computer science. He works on the reliability engineering for more than 20 years and on systems engineering for about 10 years.

He published over 200 articles in international journals and conferences. He is on the advisory boards of several international conferences and journals and is regularly invited to deliver seminars and keynote talks.

He renewed mathematical foundations and designed state-of-the-art algorithms of probabilistic safety/risk assessment. He is also the main designer of the AltaRica language and proposed state-of-the-art concepts for model-based systems engineering. He developed safety/risk assessment software that are daily used in industry and that are acknowledged as best-in-class tools.

Professor Rauzy teaches advanced programming methods, model-based systems engineering and reliability engineering. He has been the adviser of numerous master theses, fifteen PhD theses and several post-doctoral studies.

He managed numerous collaborations between academia and industry, in Europe, in the USA and in Japan.